Tag Archive: Graphics processing unit


When choosing a computer CPU it usually comes down to two choices: AMD or Intel. The CPU wars between these two corporations have been going on for years, even resulting in antitrust charges filed against Intel several times. However no matter what company you prefer, you have to agree that competition is great for the consumers since it drives the prices down and promotes innovation.

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The world leader in designing chipsets….QUALCOMM which has more than 80 percent share of designing chips of all the electronic devices like smart phones, tablet pc’s etc…. has designed a processor which is perfect for a smart phone way in the past called the SNAPDRAGON PROCESSOR.

It has later released a series of processors named SNAPDRAGON S1, S2 and S3….now it is yet to release SNAPDRAGON S4…

Snapdragon s1

Talk, text and watch videos without interruption. Snapdragon S1 mobile processors deliver superior performance when you need it, with better battery life, always.

Snapdragon S2

Do more without draining your battery. Snapdragon S2 mobile processors deliver split-second connectivity to take multimedia and social networking to the next level.

Snapdragon s3

Now, your mobile device can keep up with you. Snapdragon S3 mobile processors deliver fast, seamless performance for multitaskers that want to do it all on their phone or tablet, without stopping to recharge.

Coming Soon : Snapdragon S4

Snapdragon S4 Processors will take performance to a whole new level. Featuring single, dual and quad CPUs, dual core GPUs, best-in-class multi-media capabilities, the industry’s only 4G/LTE multimode modem technology intelligently integrated into a single system on chip.

About Snapdragon

Snapdragon is a family of mobile system on chips by Qualcomm. Qualcomm considers Snapdragon a “platform” for use in smartphones, tablets, and smartbook devices.

The original Snapdragon CPU, dubbed Scorpion, is Qualcomm’s own design. It has many features similar to those of the ARM Cortex-A8 core and it is based on the ARM v7 instruction set, but theoretically has much higher performance for multimedia-related SIMD operations. The successor to Scorpion, found in S4 Snapdragon SoCs is named Krait and has many similarities with the ARM Cortex-A15 CPU and is also based on the ARMv7 instruction set.

All Snapdragon processors contain the circuitry to decode high-definition video (HD) resolution at 720p or 1080p depending on the Snapdragon chipset. Adreno, the company’s proprietary GPU technology, integrated into Snapdragon chipsets (and certain other Qualcomm chipsets) is Qualcomm’s own design, using assets the company acquired from AMD.

Snapdragon chipsets, as of 2011, include a CPU “Krait” (with speeds up to 2.5 GHz), GPU “Adreno 225”, 2G/3G/4G modem, and severalHexagon DSP coprocessors.

Smart phones and Tablets which use Snapdragon

Samsung Galaxy Note

Samsung Galaxy Tab 8.9

HTC Amaze 4G

HTC Sensation  4G


Nokia Lumia 710

Blackberry® Torch 9850

Sony Ericsson Xperi  PLAY

and more than 800 phones have this processors in it….


courtesy:qualcomm.com. wikipedia

Posted by

Mahesh ( MGIT ECE 4th year )

How Graphics Cards Work

We many times are in a Confusion as to Select a Graphic Card for our PC….Is it really necessary for the PC???? If yes then in what way will it help the PC….If these are the Questions running in your mind, then you should go through this article….

A Graphic Card is useful for Multimedia such as better Picture viewing and video quality and Especially for Gaming….

It acts as a back-end Support to the CPU. In a normal CPU we have an inbuilt Graphic Card, but for higher Graphics Viewing we generally go for an External Graphic card….

The images you see on your monitor are made of tiny dots called pixels. At most common resolution settings, a screen displays over a million pixels, and the computer has to decide what to do with every one in order to create an image. To do this, it needs a translator — something to take binary data from the CPU and turn it into a picture you can see. Unless a computer has graphics capability built into the motherboard, that translation takes place on the graphics card.

A graphics card’s job is complex, but its principles and components are easy to understand. In this article, we will look at the basic parts of a video card and what they do. We’ll also examine the factors that work together to make a fast, efficient graphics card.Graphics cards take data from the CPU and turn it into pictures.

A graphics card works along the same principles. The CPU, working in conjunction with software applications, sends information about the image to the graphics card. The graphics card decides how to use the pixels on the screen to create the image. It then sends that information to the monitor through a cable. ­

Creating an image out of binary data is a demanding process. To make a 3-D image, the graphics card first creates a wire frame out of straight lines. Then, it rasterizes the image (fills in the remaining pixels). It also adds lighting, texture and color. For fast-paced games, the computer has to go through this process about sixty times per second. Without a graphics card to perform the necessary calculations, the workload would be too much for the computer to handle.


Like a motherboard, a graphics card is a printed circuit board that houses a processor and RAM. It also has an input/output system (BIOS) chip, which stores the card’s settings and performs diagnostics on the memory, input and output at startup. A graphics card’s processor, called a graphics processing unit (GPU), is similar to a computer’s CPU. A GPU, however, is designed specifically for performing the complex mathematical and geometric calculations that are necessary for graphics rendering. Some of the fastest GPUs have more transistors than the average CPU. A GPU produces a lot of heat, so it is usually located under a heat sink or a fan.

In addition to its processing power, a GPU uses special programming to help it analyze and use data. ATI and nVidia produce the vast majority of GPUs on the market, and both companies have developed their own enhancements for GPU performance. To improve image quality, the processors use:

  • Full scene anti aliasing (FSAA), which smoothes the edges of 3-D objects
  • Anisotropic filtering (AF), which makes images look crisper

As the GPU creates images, it needs somewhere to hold information and completed pictures. It uses the card’s RAM for this purpose, storing data about each pixel, its color and its location on the screen. Part of the RAM can also act as a frame buffer, meaning that it holds completed images until it is time to display them. Typically, video RAM operates at very high speeds and is dual ported, meaning that the system can read from it and write to it at the same time. ­ The RAM connects directly to the digital-to-analog converter, called the DAC. This converter, also called the RAMDAC, translates the image into an analog signal that the monitor can use. Some cards have multiple RAMDACs, which can improve performance and support more than one monitor.

Choosing a Good Graphics Card

A good overall measurement of a card’s performance is its frame rate, measured in frames per second (FPS). The frame rate describes how many complete images the card can display per second. The human eye can process about 25 frames every second, but fast-action games require a frame rate of at least 60 FPS to provide smooth animation and scrolling. Components of the frame rate are:

  • Triangles or vertices per second: 3-D images are made of triangles, or polygons. This measurement describes how quickly the GPU can calculate the whole polygon or the vertices that define it. In general, it describes how quickly the card builds a wire frame image.
  • Pixel fill rate: This measurement describes how many pixels the GPU can process in a second, which translates to how quickly it can rasterize the image.

    The graphics card’s hardware directly affects its speed. These are the hardware specifications that most affect the card’s speed and the units in which they are measured:

    • GPU clock speed (MHz)
    • Size of the memory bus (bits)
    • Amount of available memory (MB)
    • Memory clock rate (MHz)
    • Memory bandwidth (GB/s)
    • RAMDAC speed (MHz)

Some of the Latest Graphic Cards Available:

Sapphire HD 4770 PCIe Graphics Card
EVGA GeForce GTX 275
Gigabyte GV-R477D5-512H-B Radeon HD 4770 Videocard

Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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