GOOGLE  has created some very impressive milestones of its time and continues to grow rapidly every day.  It all started when Larry Page and Sergey Brin met in Stanford. Larry was 22 and a graduate of University of Michigan was there, considering attending the school. Sergey, who was 21, was there to show him around.

Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California.

While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between websites.They called this new technology PAGE RANK.

WHAT IS PAGE RANK???

PageRank is a link analysis algorithm, named after Larry Page and used by the Google Internet search engine. PageRank is a probability distribution used to represent the likelihood that a person randomly clicking on links will arrive at any particular page. PageRank can be calculated for collections of documents of any size. It is assumed in several research papers that the distribution is evenly divided among all documents in the collection at the beginning of the computational process. The PageRank computations require several passes, called “iterations”, through the collection to adjust approximate PageRank values to more closely reflect the theoretical true value. A 0.5 probability is commonly expressed as a “50% chance” of something happening. Hence, a PageRank of 0.5 means there is a 50% chance that a person clicking on a random link will be directed to the document with the 0.5 PageRank.

Websites are ranked just like movies. Some people watch movies that are recommended by friends and family. Others may only watch movies that are highly recommended by a movie critic.Like websites, when someone gives good reviews about a movie, naturally the movie will be ‘ranked’ higher, correct?

Your websites are just like that. When another website ‘recommends’ you by linking to you, you get a vote. The more votes you have, the higher your page rank (or the better the movie).

In other words the higher the page rank of the person pointing to your page, the better your rankings will be

Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine “BackRub”, because the system checked  backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Eventually, they changed the name to Google, originating from a misspelling of the word “googol“,the number one followed by one hundred zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine wants to provide large quantities of information for people. In august of 1998, Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim writes them a check for $100,000 to a company that didn’t even exist yet. It was at this very moment that they realized what they had  and went and incorporated the name Google Inc. Their knowledge was great, but not great enough to impress the money boys or the major internet portals. Oh how they wish they invested in them now! So they began struggling for financial support. Andy was one of the few to see true potential of what these boys had created. During their presentation to him, Andy said he had to duck out for another meeting and offered to write them a check. The check was for $100,000 and that indeed had got things moving for them.

In September the boys moved into the their workspace in Susan Wojcicki’s garage at 232 Santa Margarita, Menlo Park, CA. They then went on to file for incorporation in California on September 4 1998.  Shortly after completing this important task, the boys went an opened a bank account in the name of Google Inc., their newly established company, and deposited the $100,000 dollar check Andy Bechtolsheim had given them. Shortly after they have established there new business they began hiring employees. There first one was Craig Silverstein, a fellow grad student from Stanford as well. They then went on to become the most successful internet company ever. 

GROWTH

Google’s main advertising products and main source of revenue is the “GOOGLE ADWORDS”.

Google AdWords is a service that lets you create and run ads for your business, quickly and simply. Run your ads on Google and our advertising network — no matter what your budget, you’ll only pay when people click your ads.

How Does It Work??

AdWords ads are displayed along with search results when someone searches Google using one of your keywords. Ads appear under ‘Sponsored links’ in the side column of a search page, and may also appear in additional positions above the free search results. That way, you’ll be advertising to an audience that’s already interested in your business. You can also choose to display your ads on Display Network sites in the growing Google Network. 

Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords.In order to maintain an uncluttered page design and increase speed, advertisements were solely text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bids and click-throughs, with bidding starting at five cents per click. In Pay-Per-Click advertisements advertisers select the words that should trigger their ads and the maximum amount they will pay per click. When a user searches on Google, ads (also known as creatives by Google) for relevant words are shown as “sponsored links” on the right side of the screen, and sometimes above the main search results. Click-through rates (CTR) for the ads are about 8% for the first ad, 5% for the second one, and 2.5% for the third one. Search results can return from 0 to 12 ads.

Google’s total advertising revenues were USD$28 billion in 2010. AdWords offers  cost-per-thousand (CPM) advertising, and site-targeted advertising for text, banner, and rich-media ads. Google has implemented various innovations in the online advertising market that helped make it one of the biggest brokers in the market. Using technology from the company DoubleClick, Google can determine user interests and target advertisements so they are relevant to their context and the user that is viewing them.

GOOGLE’S ACQUISITIONS

Google slowly started increasing its empire by acquiring  many companies,mainly focusing on small venture capital companies.. In 2004, Google acquire KEYHOLE INC. The start-up company developed a product called Earth Viewer that gave a 3-D view of the Earth. Google renamed the service to Google Earth in 2005.  In July 13,2004 Google announced it acquired Picasa, Inc., a Pasadena, Calif.-based digital photo management company. Financial terms of the deal were not disclosed(Picasa enables users to easily manage and share digital photographs).In August 17,2005  google bought a mobile software company “ANDROID”( Android is an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers)

In march 2006 Google announced the acquisition of Writely, a web-based word processing application that subsequently becomes the basis for Google Docs. Later in October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for US$1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006

On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick,which provides internet ad serving services,  for $3.1 billion, giving Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies

Later that same year, Google purchased GrandCentral for $50 million.The site would later be changed over to Google Voice. Google Voice is a telecommunications service, which is  configured and maintained by the user in a web-based application, styled after Google’s e-mail service, Gmail.  Google Voice currently provides free PC-to-PC voice and video calling worldwide between users of the Google Voice and Video Chat browser plugin.

In 2008, Google developed a partnership with GeoEye to launch a satellite providing Google with high-resolution (0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m color) imagery for Google Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on September 6, 2008

On August 5, 2009, Google bought out its first public company, purchasing video software maker On2 Technologies for $106.5 million. On2 Technologies formerly known as The Duck Corporation, was a small publicly-traded company, that designs video codec technology.( A video codec is a device or software that enables video compression and/or decompression for digital videos.

GOOGLE PRODUCTS

This list of Google products includes all major desktop, mobile and online products released or acquired byGoogle Inc.

Operating systems

Android:

Operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony.

Chrome OS:

Linux-based operating system designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. Runs on the “Chromebook” and the yet-to-be-released nettop “Chromebox”.Unlike Chromium OS, which can be compiled from the downloaded source code, Chrome OS only ships on specific hardware from Google’s manufacturing partners.[5] The user interface takes a minimalist approach, resembling that of the Chrome web browser. Since Google Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Internet, the only application on the device is a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager

 GOOGLE TV:

Type in what you want to watch,and it will find for you.Google TV seamlessly search all the content on your TV ,the web and the apps-then acess it with a single click.You can also easily switch between  TV and the web without having to change inputs on your television.Smart TV platform that integrates Android and the Linux version of Google Chrome to create an interactive television overlay on top of existing internet television and WebTV sites to add a 10-foot user interface.

Desktop applications

Google chrome:

Google Chrome is a web browser developed by Google that uses the WebKit layout engine. Chrome was assembled from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties such as Mozilla‘s Netscape Portable RuntimeNetwork Security ServicesNPAPI, as well as SQLite and a number of other open-source projects.

 

Google earth:

Google Earth is a virtual globemap and geographical information program that was originally called EarthViewer 3D, and was created byKeyhole, Inc, a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) funded company acquired by Google in 2004 (see In-Q-Tel). It maps the Earth by thesuperimposition of images obtained from satellite imageryaerial photography and GIS 3D globe.  Google Earth is also available as abrowser plugin which was released on May 28, 2008.[4] It was also made available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28, 2008, as a free download from the App Store, and is available to Android users as a free app on the Android Market

Picasa:

Picasa has a search bar that is always visible when viewing the library. Searches are live, so that displayed items are filtered as you type. The search bar will search filenames, captions, tags, folder names, and other metadata Photo organization and editing application, providing photo library options and simple effects. Picasa also has an experimental feature that allows searching for images that contain certain colors with the “color:”

Sketchup:

SketchUp is a 3D modeling program marketed by Google and designed for architecturalcivil, and mechanical engineers as well as filmmakers, game developers, and related professions. The program, which is designed for ease of use,[2] allows placement of models within Google Earth.

Modeling application to sketch simple 3D structures for integrating into Google Earth.

ToolBar:

Google Toolbar is a downloadable toolbar for the Internet Explorer that allows a user to do a Google search without visiting the Google website.When you install the Toolbar, you are adding a whole new set of functions to your web browser. For example, you can use the Toolbar to perform a Google search from any site on the web, or to search for specific words on any given page.

GOOGLE  MOBILE  APPLICATIONS:

(The following products can be accessedthrough a browser in mobile phone)

Buzz:

Google Buzz is a social networkingmicroblogging and messaging tool from Google that is integrated into the company’s web-based email program, GmailUsers can share links, photos, videos, status messages and comments organized in “conversations” and visible in the user’s inbox. It was released on February 9, 2010. Buzz enables users to choose to share publicly with the world or privately to a group of friends each time they post.[4] PicasaFlickrGoogle LatitudeGoogle ReaderGoogle SidewikiYouTubeBloggerFriendFeedidenti.ca and Twitter are currently integrated.

Docs:

Google Docs is securely powered by the web, giving you the flexibility to be productive from your desk, on the road, at home and on your mobile phone, even when you’re offline. It helps us to view documents on mobile device.Google Docs works in the browser on PC, Mac, and Linux computers, and supports popular formats such as .doc, .xls, .ppt, and .pdf. Administrators can manage file sharing permissions system-wide, and document owners can share and revoke file access at any time.

Maps Navigation (Android only):

An Android navigation application for GPS-enabled mobile devices (such as Google Nexus One) with 3D views, voice guided turn-by-turn navigation and automatic rerouting.It can search for any kind of business along your route or turn on popular layers such as gas stations,restaurants or parking.It even helps to view thr route overlaid on 3d satellite views with Google’s high resolution aerial imagery..

Gmail:

Access a Gmail account from a mobile device using a standard mobile web browser. Alternatively, Google provides a specific mobile application to access and download Gmail messages quicker. User must now provide phone number to verify account.

Picasa Web Albums:

Picaasa Web Albums is the fast and easy way to put your photos online so you can startsharing.Use it with Picasa software to upload entire albums of high quality photos in a click of the softwares “web albums” button.Best of all,you and your friends can download your photos at the same high quality to print and enjoy. iGoogle:

Mobile version of iGoogle that can be easily customised with modules

Wallet:

Android app that makes your phone your wallet using near field communication, or NFC; it is virtual plastic card. Will work together with Google Offers to combine coupons, discounts, and payments for people buying things through their phone.

Product Search:

 

Google Product Search, formerly Google Products and Froogle, is a price comparison service launched by Google Inc. It is currently in beta test stage. It was invented by Craig Nevill-Manning. Its interface provides an HTML form field into which a user can type product queries to return lists of vendors selling a particular product, as well as pricing information. Google Product Search is only available for selected countries[1] at this pointLatitude: Google Latitude is a location-aware mobile app developed by Google as a successor to their earlier SMS-based service Dodgeball. Latitude allows a mobile phone user to allow certain people to view their current location. Via their own Google Account, the user’s cell phone location is mapped on Google Maps. The user can control the accuracy and details of what each of the other users can see — an exact location can be allowed, or it can be limited to identifying the city only. For privacy, it can also be turned off by the user, or a location can be manually entered. Offers: Will work together with Google Wallet to combine coupons, discounts, and payments for people buying things through their phone

Orkut:

Connect and share with friends on the go!  Its is a social networking website that is owned and operated by Google Inc. The service is designed to help users meet new and old friends and maintain existing relationships. The website is named after its creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. Although orkut is less popular in the United States than competitors Facebook and MySpace, it is one of the most visited websites in India and Brazil.

The following products must be downloaded and run for a mobile-device….

Books (Android, iOS):

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print) is a service from Google that searches the full text of books that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, and stored in its digital database. The service was formerly known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. Google’s Library Project, also now known as Google Book Search, was announced in December 2004.

Goggles (Android, iOS; from Google Labs):

Google Goggles is a downloadable image recognition application created by Google Inc. which can be currently found on the Mobile Apps page of Google Mobile. It is used for searches based on pictures taken by handheld devices. For example, taking a picture of a famous landmark would search for information about it, or taking a picture of a product’s barcode will search for information on the product. A downloadable application that uses image recognition to trigger searches based on pictures taken with a device’s built-in camera; taking pictures of things (examples: famous landmark, product barcode) causes searches for information on them.

COMMUNICATION AND PUBLISHING

Google+:

Its a social networking service developed by google.One key element of google+ is a focus on targeted sharing within subsets of your social groups,which are what Google calls Circles.Circles are simply groups of people that you can share to,each with names like friends,family,class-mates and co-workers.

Friend Connect:

Friend Connect is an online service that empowers website and blog owners to add social features to their websites. It also allows users to connect with their friends on different websites that have implemented Google Friend Connect on their website.

Google voice:

Voice Search is a feature of Google Search app for iPhone, BlackBerry, and Nokia S60 V3 phones. If you have an Android phone, search for the “Voice Search” app in Android Market. Voice Search for Android supports Voice Actions on Android 2.2 (Froyo) and above. The Android operating system also enables you to speak instead of typing in any app where you launch the keyboard. Voice Search is not available in all languages and all mobile phones.

Corporate affairs and culture…

Google is known for having an informal corporate culture.  Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world’s most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index. Google’s corporate philosophy embodies such casual principles as “you can make money without doing evil,” “you can be serious without a suit,” and “work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun.”

In 2007 and through early 2008, several top executives left Google. In October 2007, former chief financial officer of YouTube Gideon Yu joined Facebook] along with Benjamin Ling, a high-ranking engineer.  In March 2008, Sheryl Sandberg, then vice-president of global online sales and operations, began her position as chief operating officer of Facebook  .

INNOVATIVE TIME UP….

As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy often called Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. Some of Google’s newer services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors. In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google’s Vice President of Search Products and User Experience, showed that half of all new product launches at the time had originated from the Innovation Time Off.

In 2004, Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic Google.org, with a start-up fund of $1 billion. he mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. In 2008 Google announced its “project 10100” which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites. After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program, Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a total of ten million dollars to various ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a website that intends to make all legal documents public and online.

The company’s mission statement from the outset was “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful…..

courtesy:www.google.com

Posted by

Sumanth ( MGIT ECE 2nd year)