Archive for September, 2011

Samsung Epic 4G Touch

Let’s call it frustration, not jealousy. Europe and Asia have been enjoying the charms of the Samsung Galaxy S II for several months now, leaving the US to suffer a serious case of the green-eyed monster. The first of the US variants has finally arrived however, the Samsung EPIC 4G Touch, a CDMA twist on the phone we’ve been waiting for, but has the charm faded over time?


In June HTC released the EVO 3D, last month Motorola launched the Droid Bionic and now Samsung is here with the Epic 4G Touch, a Galaxy S II device for Sprint. Just as these Italian supercars compete for supremacy on the track, Android superphones are competing for pocket space. Samsung has upped the ante even from the original Galaxy S II by giving the Epic 4G Touch a 4.52” Super AMOLED Plus display to go along with a 1.2 GHz dual core processor, 8 megapixel camera with 1080p video capture and 16GB of on-board memory with an 1800mAh battery, all wrapped in a package that’s just 9.6mm thin.




The Epic 4G Touch is similar to the Galaxy S II we reviewed back in May. The most notable design change is the increased screen size – it now sits at 4.52”, up from 4.3”- and now has four capacitive buttons at the bottom instead of two and a physical button. It is about 1mm thicker, a difference that goes relatively unnoticed in the hand. With the screen size even bigger than the HTC EVO 3D and Motorola PHOTON 4G you’d think the Epic 4G Touch would be bordering on too large. To the contrary, it actually feels pretty comfortable in our medium-sized hands and it nearly gets lost when we slide it into our front pocket.



The original Galaxy S II – which we reviewed all the way back in April – was a pretty straightforward phone: big, bright and colorful screen, fast 1.2GHz dual-core processor and great camera, all wrapped up in a super-slim casing. For the EPIC 4G Touch, Samsung has done a little tweaking to that formula, and now the phone has an even bigger display. The Super AMOLED Plus panel is still as color-saturated and contrast rich as before, but is now 4.52-inches instead of 4.3-inches.

It’s still running at WVGA 800 x 480 resolution, mind, and since we’ve seen Samsung’s incredibly pixel-dense displays on the Galaxy Note at IFA earlier in the month, we can’t help but wish the EPIC 4G Touch had stepped up to qHD 960 x 540 resolution at least. Nonetheless, it’s responsive and great for video watching.


Software and Performance

It’s business as usual with Android on the EPIC 4G Touch. Samsung’s TouchWiz interface still isn’t our favorite modification to the Google OS, but it’s certainly better in its current incarnation than earlier reskins. As well as a colorful new set of icons – which seem pretty much designed to show off the Super AMOLED Plus panel’s abilities – there’s the various Samsung Hubs.

Samsung is particularly pushing the Media Hub, its own iTunes alternative offering movie and TV show downloads, and supporting progressive downloading to reduce the waiting period before you can actually start watching. However there’s also the Social Hub, which is more of an aggregator, pulling together your email, text and picture messaging, and Facebook and Twitter activity.

Kies Air remains one of our favorite tools from the original Galaxy S II review, allowing you to log into your EPIC 4G Touch from your browser when it’s on the same WiFi network, and access contacts, bookmarks, messages, photos, music and video. It works well, though Samsung still doesn’t offer a web-based remote track and sync service as HTC does.


As for raw benchmarks, the EPIC 4G Touch scored around 3,200 in Quadrant Advanced. That’s a little less than the original GSM Galaxy S II, which managed 3,540 in our original review. WiMAX performance, meanwhile, does nothing to change our stance on it being one of the lesser 4G options. We saw average download speeds of 4Mbps and upload speeds of 1.8Mbps. Contrast that with the 13Mbps downloads and 3Mbps uploads we saw on LTE with the DROID BIONIC, and it’s clear WiMAX falls short.,,


Watch this Video….


Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 4th year)


GOOGLE  has created some very impressive milestones of its time and continues to grow rapidly every day.  It all started when Larry Page and Sergey Brin met in Stanford. Larry was 22 and a graduate of University of Michigan was there, considering attending the school. Sergey, who was 21, was there to show him around.

Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California.

While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between websites.They called this new technology PAGE RANK.


PageRank is a link analysis algorithm, named after Larry Page and used by the Google Internet search engine. PageRank is a probability distribution used to represent the likelihood that a person randomly clicking on links will arrive at any particular page. PageRank can be calculated for collections of documents of any size. It is assumed in several research papers that the distribution is evenly divided among all documents in the collection at the beginning of the computational process. The PageRank computations require several passes, called “iterations”, through the collection to adjust approximate PageRank values to more closely reflect the theoretical true value. A 0.5 probability is commonly expressed as a “50% chance” of something happening. Hence, a PageRank of 0.5 means there is a 50% chance that a person clicking on a random link will be directed to the document with the 0.5 PageRank.

Websites are ranked just like movies. Some people watch movies that are recommended by friends and family. Others may only watch movies that are highly recommended by a movie critic.Like websites, when someone gives good reviews about a movie, naturally the movie will be ‘ranked’ higher, correct?

Your websites are just like that. When another website ‘recommends’ you by linking to you, you get a vote. The more votes you have, the higher your page rank (or the better the movie).

In other words the higher the page rank of the person pointing to your page, the better your rankings will be

Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine “BackRub”, because the system checked  backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Eventually, they changed the name to Google, originating from a misspelling of the word “googol“,the number one followed by one hundred zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine wants to provide large quantities of information for people. In august of 1998, Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim writes them a check for $100,000 to a company that didn’t even exist yet. It was at this very moment that they realized what they had  and went and incorporated the name Google Inc. Their knowledge was great, but not great enough to impress the money boys or the major internet portals. Oh how they wish they invested in them now! So they began struggling for financial support. Andy was one of the few to see true potential of what these boys had created. During their presentation to him, Andy said he had to duck out for another meeting and offered to write them a check. The check was for $100,000 and that indeed had got things moving for them.

In September the boys moved into the their workspace in Susan Wojcicki’s garage at 232 Santa Margarita, Menlo Park, CA. They then went on to file for incorporation in California on September 4 1998.  Shortly after completing this important task, the boys went an opened a bank account in the name of Google Inc., their newly established company, and deposited the $100,000 dollar check Andy Bechtolsheim had given them. Shortly after they have established there new business they began hiring employees. There first one was Craig Silverstein, a fellow grad student from Stanford as well. They then went on to become the most successful internet company ever. 


Google’s main advertising products and main source of revenue is the “GOOGLE ADWORDS”.

Google AdWords is a service that lets you create and run ads for your business, quickly and simply. Run your ads on Google and our advertising network — no matter what your budget, you’ll only pay when people click your ads.

How Does It Work??

AdWords ads are displayed along with search results when someone searches Google using one of your keywords. Ads appear under ‘Sponsored links’ in the side column of a search page, and may also appear in additional positions above the free search results. That way, you’ll be advertising to an audience that’s already interested in your business. You can also choose to display your ads on Display Network sites in the growing Google Network. 

Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords.In order to maintain an uncluttered page design and increase speed, advertisements were solely text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bids and click-throughs, with bidding starting at five cents per click. In Pay-Per-Click advertisements advertisers select the words that should trigger their ads and the maximum amount they will pay per click. When a user searches on Google, ads (also known as creatives by Google) for relevant words are shown as “sponsored links” on the right side of the screen, and sometimes above the main search results. Click-through rates (CTR) for the ads are about 8% for the first ad, 5% for the second one, and 2.5% for the third one. Search results can return from 0 to 12 ads.

Google’s total advertising revenues were USD$28 billion in 2010. AdWords offers  cost-per-thousand (CPM) advertising, and site-targeted advertising for text, banner, and rich-media ads. Google has implemented various innovations in the online advertising market that helped make it one of the biggest brokers in the market. Using technology from the company DoubleClick, Google can determine user interests and target advertisements so they are relevant to their context and the user that is viewing them.


Google slowly started increasing its empire by acquiring  many companies,mainly focusing on small venture capital companies.. In 2004, Google acquire KEYHOLE INC. The start-up company developed a product called Earth Viewer that gave a 3-D view of the Earth. Google renamed the service to Google Earth in 2005.  In July 13,2004 Google announced it acquired Picasa, Inc., a Pasadena, Calif.-based digital photo management company. Financial terms of the deal were not disclosed(Picasa enables users to easily manage and share digital photographs).In August 17,2005  google bought a mobile software company “ANDROID”( Android is an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers)

In march 2006 Google announced the acquisition of Writely, a web-based word processing application that subsequently becomes the basis for Google Docs. Later in October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for US$1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006

On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick,which provides internet ad serving services,  for $3.1 billion, giving Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies

Later that same year, Google purchased GrandCentral for $50 million.The site would later be changed over to Google Voice. Google Voice is a telecommunications service, which is  configured and maintained by the user in a web-based application, styled after Google’s e-mail service, Gmail.  Google Voice currently provides free PC-to-PC voice and video calling worldwide between users of the Google Voice and Video Chat browser plugin.

In 2008, Google developed a partnership with GeoEye to launch a satellite providing Google with high-resolution (0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m color) imagery for Google Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on September 6, 2008

On August 5, 2009, Google bought out its first public company, purchasing video software maker On2 Technologies for $106.5 million. On2 Technologies formerly known as The Duck Corporation, was a small publicly-traded company, that designs video codec technology.( A video codec is a device or software that enables video compression and/or decompression for digital videos.


This list of Google products includes all major desktop, mobile and online products released or acquired byGoogle Inc.

Operating systems


Operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony.

Chrome OS:

Linux-based operating system designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. Runs on the “Chromebook” and the yet-to-be-released nettop “Chromebox”.Unlike Chromium OS, which can be compiled from the downloaded source code, Chrome OS only ships on specific hardware from Google’s manufacturing partners.[5] The user interface takes a minimalist approach, resembling that of the Chrome web browser. Since Google Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Internet, the only application on the device is a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager


Type in what you want to watch,and it will find for you.Google TV seamlessly search all the content on your TV ,the web and the apps-then acess it with a single click.You can also easily switch between  TV and the web without having to change inputs on your television.Smart TV platform that integrates Android and the Linux version of Google Chrome to create an interactive television overlay on top of existing internet television and WebTV sites to add a 10-foot user interface.

Desktop applications

Google chrome:

Google Chrome is a web browser developed by Google that uses the WebKit layout engine. Chrome was assembled from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties such as Mozilla‘s Netscape Portable RuntimeNetwork Security ServicesNPAPI, as well as SQLite and a number of other open-source projects.


Google earth:

Google Earth is a virtual globemap and geographical information program that was originally called EarthViewer 3D, and was created byKeyhole, Inc, a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) funded company acquired by Google in 2004 (see In-Q-Tel). It maps the Earth by thesuperimposition of images obtained from satellite imageryaerial photography and GIS 3D globe.  Google Earth is also available as abrowser plugin which was released on May 28, 2008.[4] It was also made available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28, 2008, as a free download from the App Store, and is available to Android users as a free app on the Android Market


Picasa has a search bar that is always visible when viewing the library. Searches are live, so that displayed items are filtered as you type. The search bar will search filenames, captions, tags, folder names, and other metadata Photo organization and editing application, providing photo library options and simple effects. Picasa also has an experimental feature that allows searching for images that contain certain colors with the “color:”


SketchUp is a 3D modeling program marketed by Google and designed for architecturalcivil, and mechanical engineers as well as filmmakers, game developers, and related professions. The program, which is designed for ease of use,[2] allows placement of models within Google Earth.

Modeling application to sketch simple 3D structures for integrating into Google Earth.


Google Toolbar is a downloadable toolbar for the Internet Explorer that allows a user to do a Google search without visiting the Google website.When you install the Toolbar, you are adding a whole new set of functions to your web browser. For example, you can use the Toolbar to perform a Google search from any site on the web, or to search for specific words on any given page.


(The following products can be accessedthrough a browser in mobile phone)


Google Buzz is a social networkingmicroblogging and messaging tool from Google that is integrated into the company’s web-based email program, GmailUsers can share links, photos, videos, status messages and comments organized in “conversations” and visible in the user’s inbox. It was released on February 9, 2010. Buzz enables users to choose to share publicly with the world or privately to a group of friends each time they post.[4] PicasaFlickrGoogle LatitudeGoogle ReaderGoogle and Twitter are currently integrated.


Google Docs is securely powered by the web, giving you the flexibility to be productive from your desk, on the road, at home and on your mobile phone, even when you’re offline. It helps us to view documents on mobile device.Google Docs works in the browser on PC, Mac, and Linux computers, and supports popular formats such as .doc, .xls, .ppt, and .pdf. Administrators can manage file sharing permissions system-wide, and document owners can share and revoke file access at any time.

Maps Navigation (Android only):

An Android navigation application for GPS-enabled mobile devices (such as Google Nexus One) with 3D views, voice guided turn-by-turn navigation and automatic rerouting.It can search for any kind of business along your route or turn on popular layers such as gas stations,restaurants or parking.It even helps to view thr route overlaid on 3d satellite views with Google’s high resolution aerial imagery..


Access a Gmail account from a mobile device using a standard mobile web browser. Alternatively, Google provides a specific mobile application to access and download Gmail messages quicker. User must now provide phone number to verify account.

Picasa Web Albums:

Picaasa Web Albums is the fast and easy way to put your photos online so you can startsharing.Use it with Picasa software to upload entire albums of high quality photos in a click of the softwares “web albums” button.Best of all,you and your friends can download your photos at the same high quality to print and enjoy. iGoogle:

Mobile version of iGoogle that can be easily customised with modules


Android app that makes your phone your wallet using near field communication, or NFC; it is virtual plastic card. Will work together with Google Offers to combine coupons, discounts, and payments for people buying things through their phone.

Product Search:


Google Product Search, formerly Google Products and Froogle, is a price comparison service launched by Google Inc. It is currently in beta test stage. It was invented by Craig Nevill-Manning. Its interface provides an HTML form field into which a user can type product queries to return lists of vendors selling a particular product, as well as pricing information. Google Product Search is only available for selected countries[1] at this pointLatitude: Google Latitude is a location-aware mobile app developed by Google as a successor to their earlier SMS-based service Dodgeball. Latitude allows a mobile phone user to allow certain people to view their current location. Via their own Google Account, the user’s cell phone location is mapped on Google Maps. The user can control the accuracy and details of what each of the other users can see — an exact location can be allowed, or it can be limited to identifying the city only. For privacy, it can also be turned off by the user, or a location can be manually entered. Offers: Will work together with Google Wallet to combine coupons, discounts, and payments for people buying things through their phone


Connect and share with friends on the go!  Its is a social networking website that is owned and operated by Google Inc. The service is designed to help users meet new and old friends and maintain existing relationships. The website is named after its creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. Although orkut is less popular in the United States than competitors Facebook and MySpace, it is one of the most visited websites in India and Brazil.

The following products must be downloaded and run for a mobile-device….

Books (Android, iOS):

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print) is a service from Google that searches the full text of books that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, and stored in its digital database. The service was formerly known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. Google’s Library Project, also now known as Google Book Search, was announced in December 2004.

Goggles (Android, iOS; from Google Labs):

Google Goggles is a downloadable image recognition application created by Google Inc. which can be currently found on the Mobile Apps page of Google Mobile. It is used for searches based on pictures taken by handheld devices. For example, taking a picture of a famous landmark would search for information about it, or taking a picture of a product’s barcode will search for information on the product. A downloadable application that uses image recognition to trigger searches based on pictures taken with a device’s built-in camera; taking pictures of things (examples: famous landmark, product barcode) causes searches for information on them.



Its a social networking service developed by google.One key element of google+ is a focus on targeted sharing within subsets of your social groups,which are what Google calls Circles.Circles are simply groups of people that you can share to,each with names like friends,family,class-mates and co-workers.

Friend Connect:

Friend Connect is an online service that empowers website and blog owners to add social features to their websites. It also allows users to connect with their friends on different websites that have implemented Google Friend Connect on their website.

Google voice:

Voice Search is a feature of Google Search app for iPhone, BlackBerry, and Nokia S60 V3 phones. If you have an Android phone, search for the “Voice Search” app in Android Market. Voice Search for Android supports Voice Actions on Android 2.2 (Froyo) and above. The Android operating system also enables you to speak instead of typing in any app where you launch the keyboard. Voice Search is not available in all languages and all mobile phones.

Corporate affairs and culture…

Google is known for having an informal corporate culture.  Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world’s most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index. Google’s corporate philosophy embodies such casual principles as “you can make money without doing evil,” “you can be serious without a suit,” and “work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun.”

In 2007 and through early 2008, several top executives left Google. In October 2007, former chief financial officer of YouTube Gideon Yu joined Facebook] along with Benjamin Ling, a high-ranking engineer.  In March 2008, Sheryl Sandberg, then vice-president of global online sales and operations, began her position as chief operating officer of Facebook  .


As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy often called Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. Some of Google’s newer services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors. In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google’s Vice President of Search Products and User Experience, showed that half of all new product launches at the time had originated from the Innovation Time Off.

In 2004, Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic, with a start-up fund of $1 billion. he mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. In 2008 Google announced its “project 10100” which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites. After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program, Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a total of ten million dollars to various ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a website that intends to make all legal documents public and online.

The company’s mission statement from the outset was “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful…..

Posted by

Sumanth ( MGIT ECE 2nd year)

Windows 8 Tablet PC

Like Apple’s latest attempt at a desktop OS, Windows 8 borrows largely from its mobile kin, Window Phone 7, bringing its signature live tiles to tablets and PCs, and from what we’ve seen it does so effortlessly. Before we go ruining a good thing, however, we have to point out that this isn’t everything Windows has to offer — it’s still a developers preview (and in turn, an OS under construction), and the device it’s running on hasn’t been approved as an official Windows 8 slate. Got all that? Good. Read on for our first impressions!

Metro style UI


You’ll hear the words “Metro-style” almost endlessly surrounding the release of Windows 8. Live tiles, hidden menus and controls, large, flashy graphics, bold white type, multi-touch gestures: these are the characteristics that set the OS apart from its predecessor and, to some degree, from its competitors. You won’t see any of the old, static Windows here, unless of course you choose to — the desktop that you’ve grown used to in Windows 7 is still present, albeit as an app, but more on that later. If you’re familiar with Windows Phone 7, the user experience should be pretty familiar, but not entirely so.


Touch Gestures

One thing becomes abundantly clear when you’re zipping through those customizable live tiles: Microsoft is banking on touch screens. The outfit’s execs weren’t shy on that point at yesterday’s press preview, going so far as to say that “a monitor without touch feels dead,” but the proof is in the pudding. Fortunately, most of the touch gestures are perfectly responsive; simple swipes left and right allowed for quick scrolling, a swipe from the right edge of the screen pulled up the appropriate navigation menu, and a gentle tap and pull on any given tile selected it for customization, but there was one gesture we never managed to master. Live tiles are supposed to be easily reorganized, and they are, but so are their selected groupings. A simple pinch-to-zoom technique should bring up a simplified overview of the entire start page, allowing you to rename and customize groupings. However, no amount of pinching or prodding could get our prototype to fall in line, thus our tile teams went unnamed.


Because not every PC has a touch screen quite yet, we’ve been told you can use the conventional keyboard and mouse to make your way through the new UI. While we weren’t able to get our hands on a compatible mouse in time for this write up, we did give the Series 7’s keyboard a spin, and, much as we experienced in our first hands-on with the device, it got the job done. But Windows 8 is clearly a touchy-feely OS, and its various ways of getting text on the page are a testament to that. There are three different methods for text input: two touch keyboards and handwriting. We were amazed that throwing down our signature chicken scratch actually proved fruitful, but handwriting on any computer still seems counterintuitive. The other two keyboards were responsive, and the layout was as good as any we’d seen.


Metro Style Internet Explorer 10

That full-screen experience is carried over into the browser, which also gets the Metro treatment, giving you unencumbered viewing of whatever it is you look at on the internet. Frankly, we’ve never been put out by scroll bars, tabs, or URLs, but it seems nothing is untouched by Windows 8’s new Metro wand. And, truth be told, after doing without for a while, we’re not entirely sure we miss all the added distractions.

Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 4th year)





If  we could see sound  our world would be even more beautiful than we could imagine. It would be a world filled with shimmering holographic bubbles each displaying a kaleidoscopic pattern on its surface. To see sound is to open a new window onto our world, one that has been veiled in mystery until recently.

A sound bubble created by a violin sound…

Sound is an invisible force that permeates every aspect of our lives. With the exception of music, many  man made sounds are jarring while the sounds of Nature tend to flow over and around us like soothing waters, lifting our spirit, inspiring us, exciting us. When microscope and telescope where invented they opened vistas on realms that were not even suspected.The fields of biology and cosmology would have remained close to you without  these  instruments.The  cymascope  holds the same potential for advancement as the  microsope and telescope and its applications are on the  brink of touching every aspect of human endeavour….



The Cymascope is a new type of scientific instrument that makes sound visible. Its development began in 2002, with a prototype that featured a thin, circular, P.V.C. membrane; later we used latex. Fine particulate matter was used as the revealing media. However, it was soon discovered that far greater detail could be obtained by imprinting sonic vibrations on the surface of ultra pure water. The surface tension of water has high flexibility and fast response to imposed vibrations, even with transients as short-lived as a few milliseconds. Therefore, water is able to translate many of the sinusoidal periodicities–in a given sound sample–into physical sinusoidal structures on the water’s surface. Current limits to imprinting sound on water occur in the higher harmonics and are due mainly to there being insufficient energy available in this area of the audio spectrum to cause excursions of the surface tension membrane.


In some cases the sinusoidal structures created on the surface tension are visible beneath the water’s surface, providing partial 3D geometrical data. These surface and sub-surface structures can readily be made visible to the naked eye by the application of a light source arranged above the water’s surface, either off-axis or–when using a light ring illuminator–on-axis. Capturing the imprints, known as CymaGlyphs, is achieved by means of a conventional digital camera or camcorder arranged vertically downward toward the water and coaxial with it.


The generic term for the patterns of vibration that occur on the surface of an object when excited by an incident sound is ‘modal phenomena,’ a field of study that covers everything from vibrations in suspension bridges, to vibrations in body parts of cars, to the effects of sound on the human skeleton and internal organs. In the 1970’s this branch of science was named ‘cymatics’ by Swiss doctor Hans Jenny, a word that derives from the Greek ‘kyma,’ meaning ‘wave’ and the inspiration for the name of our CymaScope instrument. The classical view of modal phenomena is that modal patterns form as a consequence of the natural resonant frequencies, or modes, of the object or membrane; current mathematical techniques used to describe this class of phenomena say nothing about the quality of the exciting sound. Musical sounds contain many harmonics so when a circular membrane is excited by a complex musical sound the resulting modal pattern(s) are, naturally, also complex. If we sample a moment from music and analyze it in terms of its fundamental frequency and associated harmonics, and then apply that sample to, say, a circular latex membrane of known elasticity, known diameter and fixed edge, present mathematical  techniques cannot predict what pattern will form on the membrane. It appears that no one has attempted to solve this problem, either because no applications for a solution have become evident or because physicists have not seen the importance of mathematically modeling such phenomena. Only the pattern associated with the fundamental frequency can be predicted with any degree of certainty. Mathematical modelling of the modes of vibration of a circular flexible membrane currently contain only such factors as shape and elacticity of the materials; the mathematics either describe a fixed boundary condition, in the case of a drum, or a single central fixing and a free edge in the case of a circular Chladni plate. Bessel functions and the wave equation are employed to define a finite number of normal modes, based on the natural resonances of the membrane or plate.

However, the parameters for the CymaScope are quite different to the case of the drum and the circular resonant plate. Water is free to move at the circular boundary and across its entire surface area. In addition, water responds not only to its normal modes but to any audible frequency imposed on it. In other words, within the limits mentioned above, all the primary periodicities in a given audible sound or in a given sample of music are rendered visible. The resulting patterns can be considered as analogs of the sound or music since the geometry in the resulting patterns is a function of the periodicities within the exciting sound.

Your voice is a holographic representation of all that you are and contains all aspects of your energetic field. Ancient sages have taught for millennia that the voice is a bridge to the divine. This quote from a Greek traveler in Egypt sums it up perfectly:

“In Egypt, when priests sing hymns to the gods, they sing the seven vowels in

due succession and the sound of these vowels has such euphony that men

listen to it instead of the flute and the lyre.” Demetrius 200 BCE



To understand the concept of visual sound a little more fully it will be helpful to explore how the vibrating atoms of air that create sound relate to light and life. At the moment of these atomic sound collisions something quite magical happens: Light is created. Light occurs every time the magnetic shells of two vibrating atoms bump against each other. The frequency of light created in this way depends on the energy in the collisions, meaning how fast they bump together. Try this experiment: Rub your hands vigorously together. You’ll feel warmth. This is because the atoms in one hand are slipping past the atoms in your other hand, creating heat, which is just another name for light. The light you create by this friction method is in the infrared part of the spectrum of electromagnetism, invisible to our eyes but quite visible to some species of bat, owl, snake and mosquito. You create infrared light even when you speak. The atoms and molecules in the air are excited by the vocal folds in your larynx, creating a tiny pearl of acoustic energy that rapidly expands out of your mouth and rushes away at around 700 miles an hour. The atoms and molecules of air within this expanding bubble are bumping into each other, each collision transferring your voice vibrations to the nearest atom or molecule. As these ‘bumps’ occur they cause infrared light to be created due to the friction between the magnetic shells of theair particles. The infrared light carries with it the modulations of your voice that rush away at the incredible speed of 186,000 miles per second. Unlike the sound of a voice, which becomes inaudible after about one mile, the infrared light created by your voice rushes out into space where it travels for eternity, carrying your words or songs to the stars. Thus, there is a direct relationship between sound and light and in fact there can be no light in the Universe without sound because light is only created when atoms collide with each other, and such collisions are sound. So light and life owe their existence to sound.




Cymatics today is the window to the universe. The underlying principle of cymatics is that the geometry of sound can be imprinted onto membranes and made visible with special techniques, hence it has applications in every branch of science.



Animal communication has been studied for decades although reliably identifying animal sounds has proven to be extraordinarily difficult. Holding a ‘conversation’ with another species remains a dream for zoologists and ornithologists but recent research in the field of dolphin communication, using the CymaScope, is beginning to show promise. The CymaScope can simplify the complex sounds a dolphin makes into “picture words” that we call CymaGlyphs, each picture representing a dolphin’s word for a given object. Dolphins have regular eyes but they also “see with sound” and can beam a sound picture of a predator to other dolphins. By creating a lexicon of dolphin CymaGlyphs, it should eventually be possible to hold a rudimentary conversation in which a computer converts a human word into a dolphin word and the dolphin’s reply is then converted into human words–an exciting prospect!

The key to this technique is the CymaScope, a new instrument that reveals detailed structures within sounds, allowing their architecture to be studied pictorially. Using high definition audio recordings of dolphins, the research team, headed by English acoustics engineer, John Stuart Reid, and Florida-based dolphin researcher, Jack Kassewitz, has been able to image, for the first time, the imprint that a dolphin sound makes in water. The resulting “CymaGlyphs,” as they have been named, are reproducible patterns that are expected to form the basis of a lexicon of dolphin language, each pattern representing a dolphin ‘picture word.’

Certain sounds made by dolphins have long been suspected to represent language but the complexity of the sounds has made their analysis difficult. Previous techniques, using the spectrograph, display cetacean (dolphins, whales and porpoises) sounds only as graphs of frequency and amplitude. The CymaScope captures actual sound vibrations imprinted in the dolphin’s natural environment—water, revealing the intricate visual details of dolphin sounds for the first time.

A  baby dolphin’s call to its mother made visible on the cymascope


One of the many applications for the CymaScope lies in making visible sounds from the interior of the earth, planets, stars, nebulae and galaxies Another application for the CymaScope is imaging sounds from space. We discussed earlier the concept that all sounds have an infrared component. When we speak or sing outdoors our words or song will one day reach the stars in the form of modulated infrared light. But the reverse is also true: sounds from stars continually bathe the earth. Oscillating stars have a particular type of signature and in collaboration with Professor Don Kurtz we recently imaged the sound of a star that he discovered, known as HR 3831-A. This technique allows us to see the distinctive geometry of the sounds at work within the atomic furnace of the star and could provide a valuable analogue for future students of asteroseismology and for outreach projects in schools and colleges.

The sonic signature of the star ‘HR-381’made visible on cymascope

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“Sound is the medicine of the future.” Edgar Cayce

Resonance may be the most important principle of sound healing and has various definitions. In the context of healing humans or animals it can be described as the frequency of vibration that is most natural to a specific organ or system such as the heart, liver or lungs. This innate frequency is known as the prime resonance. All cells emit sound as a consequence of their metabolic processes. There is an interaction between the cells own sounds and those imposed by the environment, including those applied by sound healing devices. The resonance principle relates to the cellular absorption of the healing sounds and/or their harmonics. In sound healing, resonance principles are employed to re-harmonize cells that have been (hypothetically) imprinted with disruptive frequencies. Such troublesome imprints may have been a result of toxic substances, emotional traumas, pathogens, or long-term exposure to noise pollution.

The role of cymatics in sound healing: All sounds have structure and form when manifest on membranes, including the surface membranes of cells.  It is possible that when the arrangement pattern of ion channels on the surface membrane of a cell is triggered by sonic energy pattern that match or at least come close to the geometric arrangement of the ion channel’s the ion channels will be stimulated, triggering the replication response.

The white arcs represent the incoming sound field. The pattern on the cell surface is caused by the interaction of the sound with the cell.


Posted by

Sumanth (MGIT ECE 2nd year)


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Amphibian Technology

Many of us have heard about Amphibian animals like Frog,Crocodile etc which can live both on Land and Water….

Technology has risen up to such an extent where even a same Vehicles Can also travel both on Water and Land….So here comes the AMPHIBIAN TECHNOLOGY

We have 3 varieties the Aquada ,the Humdinga , the Quadski….


The Aquada


The Aquada is a revolutionary showcase of High Speed Amphibian (HSA) technology.

This radical new breed of vehicle has been precision engineered to the most exacting standards. It has undergone an extensive safety testing programme and complies with appropriate marine and road safety regulations.

Entry to the water is via beach, boat ramp, slipway or directly from the water’s edge. Once afloat, the transition from road vehicle to High Speed Amphibian (HSA) is effortlessly achieved.

Simply press a button and drive into the water. The wheels automatically rise and as you press the accelerator nearly a ton of thrust pushes the Aquada onto the plane. The whole process takes less than 12 seconds. The Aquada can plane at over 30mph.

Powerful enough to tow a water-skier and with a style and class of its own, the Gibbs Aquada is the perfect leisure vehicle. It combines the thrill of an open top car with the sheer exhilaration experienced in a high performance speedboat.

The Aquada is the new name for freedom!


The Humdinga


Although the new application utilizes the same patented HSA technological platform as the Aquada, it shares no common component parts or systems with its predecessor. It has been designed specifically to access remote and hostile terrain. The Humdinga can comfortably transport five people complete with luggage/supplies on at least twice as much of the world’s surface as previous vehicles.

The Humdinga illustrates the scalability and versatility of HSA technology. HSA Technology can make vehicles ranging from passenger cars to SUVs to buses and trucks High Speed Amphibians.

The Humdinga transforms from land to water mode at a touch of a button. The wheels retract, the power train switches from the wheels to a jet propulsion system and the vehicle is in amphibious mode. In just a few seconds the driver is planing at a speed of forty miles per hour.

“This 4WD HSA demonstrates that the technology is adaptable for a whole range of applications. It took us 8 years, a million man-hours and tens of millions of pounds to develop HSA technology. With this latest vehicle, I’m sure that the technology’s potential is clear for all to see.”, comments Alan Gibbs, founder of Gibbs Technologies.

On land the Humdinga can accelerate from 0-60 in 9.2 seconds and on water can reach the ‘plane’ in less than 10 seconds. It has a curb weight of 2000kg, has all wheel independent air suspension and runs on regular unleaded petrol. The vehicle is 5400mm in length, 1850mm in height and 2000mm in width.


The Quadski


Gibbs Technologies, the world’s only High Speed Amphibian (HSA) technology specialist, today unveiled a prototype of the first commercially viable high-speed personal sports amphibian – Quadski.

Quadski is the third demonstration of Gibbs’ HSA technology following the successes of the Aquada and the Humdinga. It is capable of travelling up to 50 mph (72 kph) on land and water and makes the transition at the flick of a switch.

Commenting on the launch of the Quadski prototype, Alan Gibbs, the founder of Gibbs Technologies said, “Quadski is both exciting and practical with a multitude of uses”.

“I know consumers will love the fun of driving a Quadski on land one minute and then head straight into the sea or river the next. But there is a very serious side to Quadski as well: emergency services and aid workers will be able to reach areas and people no two or four wheel drive vehicle could reach.”

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Hari Hara Sravan (MGIT ECE 2nd year)


1)        WHAT IS THIS?

ANS: URL shortening is a technique on the World Wide Web in which a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) may be made substantially shorter in length and still direct to the required page. This is achieved by using an HTTP Redirect on a domain name that is short, which links to the web page that has a long URL.

For example:

The URL shortening can be shortened to

This is very convenient for messaging technologies such as Twitter and, which severely limit the number of characters that may be used in a message. Short URLs allow otherwise long web addresses to be referred to in a tweet. In November 2009, the shortened links on one URL shortening service were accessed 2.1 billion times.



ANS: Some web developers on mainstream sites tend to pass descriptive attributes in the URL to represent data hierarchies, command structures, transaction paths or session information and this often results in a URL that contains a large number of characters, is awkward to reproduce and impossible to remember. Copying a URL that is hundreds of characters long can only really be successfully done by copy-and-paste. Trying to type one by hand will be time-consuming and may result in errors. Thus a short URL is more useful to write in an e-mail message or an internet forum post.

On Twitter and some instant-messaging services, there is a limit on the total number of characters that can be used in a message. Using a URL shortener, we can make it easier to include a URL within a short message. Some shortening services, such as and, can generate URLs that are human readable, although the resulting strings are longer than those generated by a length-optimized service. A QR Code (A QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response code) is a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code) first designed for the automotive industry. More recently, the system has become popular outside of industry due to its fast readability and comparatively large storage capacity. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information encoded can be made up of any kind of data (e.g., binary, alphanumeric, or Kanji symbols) that stores a URL can be more readable by using a URL shortener to minimize the length of the URL it encodes.


ANS:  An increasing number of websites are registering their own short URLs to make sharing via Twitter and SMS easier. This can normally be done online, at the web pages of a URL shortening service. Short URLs often circumvent the intended use of top-level domains for indicating the country of origin; domain registration in many countries requires proof of physical presence within that country, although a redirected URL has no such guarantee.



ANS:  In URL shortening, every long URL is associated with a unique key, which is the part after http://top-level domain name/.

For example has a key ofm3q2xt. Not all redirection is treated equally; the redirection instruction sent to a browser can contain in its header the HTTP status 301 (permanent redirect) or 302 (temporary redirect). In the field of search engine optimization it is believed that a permanent redirect will receive a higher ranking.

There are several techniques to implement a URL shortening. Keys can be generated in base 36, assuming 26 letters and 10 numbers. In this case, each character in the sequence will be 0, 1 to 9, a, b, c, ..., y, z. Alternatively, if uppercase and lowercase letters are differentiated, then each character can represent a single digit within a number of base 62 (26 + 26 + 10). In order to form the key, a hash function can be made, or a random number generated so that key sequence is not predictable. Or users may propose their own keys. For example, can be shortened to

Not all protocols are capable of being shortened, as of 2011, although protocols such as http, https, ftp, ftps, mailto, news, mms, rtmp, rtmpt, e2dk, pop, imap, nntp, news, ldap, gopher, dict and dns are being addressed by such services as URL Shortener. Typically, data: and java script: URLs are not supported for security reasons. Some URL shortening services support the forwarding of mailto URLs, as an alternative to address munging, to avoid unwanted harvest by web crawlers or bots. This may sometimes be done using short, CAPTCHA-protected URLs, but this is not common., and use Unicode characters to achieve the shortest URLs possible, since more condensed URLs are possible with a given number of characters compared to those using a standard Latin alphabet.




1)        The short services may stop working. So all the short URL’s under these services will be broken. This is called LINKROT.

2)      URL shortening sites are sometimes shut down by their hosting Internet service provider (ISP) because the links are being used for illicit purposes. This is called CLOSURE BY INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER.

3)      Shortened internet links typically use foreign country domain names, and are therefore under the jurisdiction of that nation. Libya, for instance, exercised its control over the .ly domain in October 2010 to shut down for violating Libyan pornography laws. Failure to predict such problems with URL shorteners and investment in URL shortening companies may reflect a lack of due diligence. This is called INTERNATIONAL LAW.

4)      Apart from this there are problems like security, blocking problems.

Thus, it has its own importance in today’s world. Try it friends… so that everyone can easily remember your blog or anything. :-).

Posted by

Ravi Teja (MGIT ECE 4th year)

A Tour into Google Doodles

The first Google Doodle was in honor of the Burning Man Festival of 1998. The doodle was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then-intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in 2000. Hwang has been designing the Google Doodles ever since. Clicking on a Google Doodle links to a string of Google search results about the topic, which can drive a lot of traffic to unsuspecting sites.

Google Doodle is a Google Logo designed with graphics or any other web technology to remember a particular day or to give tribute to a famous personality by Displaying the logo on the homepage.

Google Doodles are trends now a days,trends means Google celebrated special occasions like birthdays of famous people who did something remarkable in history,festivals,invention days,formation of a certain thing etc.Google celebrates with Google Doodle.

Google Doodles are always remarkable and noticeable,but recently Google Doodle used to remember birthday of Les Paul was amazing and one of the best Doodle ever.You might not have missed it because its on Google Homepage and everyone do check daily another amazing thing is its showing off on the second day too.,,

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Mahesh (MGIT ECE 4th year)

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How BitTorrent Works

BitTorrent is a protocol that enables fast downloading of large files using minimum Internet bandwidth. It costs nothing to use and includes no spyware or pop-up advertising.

Unlike other download methods, BitTorrent maximizes transfer speed by gathering pieces of the file you want and downloading these pieces simultaneously from people who already have them. This process makes popular and very large files, such as videos and television programs, download much faster than is possible with other protocols.

In this article, we’ll examine how BitTorrent works and how it is different from other file-distribution methods. In addition, you’ll learn how to use BitTorrent and what the future might hold for this innovative approach to serving files over the Internet.

Traditional Client-Server Downloading
To understand how BitTorrent works and why it is different from other file-serving methods, let’s examine what happens when you download a file from a Web site. It works something like this:

  • You open a Web page and click a link to download a file to your computer.
  • The Web browser software on your computer (the client) tells the server (a central computer that holds the Web page and the file you want to download) to transfer a copy of the file to your computer.
  • The transfer is handled by a protocol (a set of rules), such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol) or HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol).


The transfer speed is affected by a number of variables, including the type of protocol, the amount of traffic on the server and the number of other computers that are downloading the file. If the file is both large and popular, the demands on the server are great, and the download will be slow.


Peer-to-peer File Sharing

Peer-to-peer file sharing is different from traditional file downloading. In peer-to-peer sharing, you use a software program (rather than your Web browser) to locate computers that have the file you want. Because these are ordinary computers like yours, as opposed to servers, they are called peers. The process works like this:

  • You run peer-to-peer file-sharing software (for example, a Gnutella program) on your computer and send out a request for the file you want to download.
  • To locate the file, the software queries other computers that are connected to the Internet and running the file-sharing software.
  • When the software finds a computer that has the file you want on its hard drive, the download begins.
  • Others using the file-sharing software can obtain files they want from your computer’s hard drive.


The file-transfer load is distributed between the computers exchanging files, but file searches and transfers from your computer to others can cause bottlenecks. Some people download files and immediately disconnect without allowing others to obtain files from their system, which is called leeching. This limits the number of computers the software can search for the requested file.


What BitTorrent Does

Unlike some other peer-to-peer downloading methods, BitTorrent is a protocol that offloads some of the file tracking work to a central server (called a tracker). Another difference is that it uses a principal called tit-for-tat. This means that in order to receive files, you have to give them. This solves the problem of leeching — one of developer Bram Cohen’s primary goals. With BitTorrent, the more files you share with others, the faster your downloads are. Finally, to make better use of available Internet bandwidth (the pipeline for data transmission), BitTorrent downloads different pieces of the file you want simultaneously from multiple computers.

  • You open a Web page and click on a link for the file you want.
  • BitTorrent client software communicates with a tracker to find other computers running BitTorrent that have the complete file (seed computers) and those with a portion of the file (peers that are usually in the process of downloading the file).
  • The tracker identifies the swarm, which is the connected computers that have all of or a portion of the file and are in the process of sending or receiving it.
  • The tracker helps the client software trade pieces of the file you want with other computers in the swarm. Your computer receives multiple pieces of the file simultaneously.
  • If you continue to run the BitTorrent client software after your download is complete, others can receive .torrent files from your computer; your future download rates improve because you are ranked higher in the “tit-for-tat” system.

Downloading pieces of the file at the same time helps solve a common problem with other peer-to-peer download methods: Peers upload at a much slower rate than they download. By downloading multiple pieces at the same time, the overall speed is greatly improved. The more computers involved in the swarm, the faster the file transfer occurs because there are more sources of each piece of the file. For this reason, BitTorrent is especially useful for large, popular files.

Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 4th year)

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Are U insecure about your secret information from getting leaked???So… is the solution for your problem………”STEGANOGRAPHY”  ……….A new n secure step in the world of security!!!


What is Steganography ?

  • —Steganography is the practice of hiding private or sensitive information within something that appears to be nothing out of the usual.
  • —Steganography in the modern day sense of the word usually refers to information or a file that has been concealed inside a digital Picture, Video or Audio file.

Advantages :

  • —It is used in the way of hiding not the Information but the password to reach that Information.
  • —Difficult to detect .Only receiver can detect.
  • —Can be applied differently in digital image, audio & video file.
  • —It can be done faster with the large no of software’s.



  • —Huge number of data = huge file size, so some one can suspect about it.
  • —In sending and receiving information can be leaked.
  • —The confidentiality of information is maintained by the algorithms, and if the algorithms are known then its all over.
  • —If this technique is gone in the wrong hands like hackers, terrorist ,criminals then this can be very much dangerous for all.

Posted By

Shiva Chaitanya(ECE 2/4) MGIT

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Google Sphere

Few days ago we wrote about Google Gravity. You can arrange Google search as like as your desktop in Google Gravity.

Now, it’s time to Google Sphere. What is Google Sphere?


When you visit on Google sphere then you can feel as Google’s galaxy. The fun is when you search for images (Google Sphere is create for image search only). Google sphere concept is very good but it’s like as Tag Cloud style.

Creator of Google Sphere Mr.Doob comments: “If you have ever done anything with 3D you probably know that scaling is the only thing you need to give the illusion of 3D on a 2D surface. Porting my custom 3D engine from Actionscript 3 to Javascript was pretty easy and the only thing left to figure out was the z-sorting of div elements.

For the magic touch it just needed some smooth animations which is where Skill comes in.”

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Mahesh (MGIT ECE 4th year)

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