Archive for June, 2011


The .Anything Era

Today’s narrow range of so-called top-level domains (such as .com and .org) are about to be joined by an unlimited range of new ones. These could be used as corporate branding (.coke or .pepsi, for example), to organize multiple sites into categories (think .food, .bank, and anything else). But, while they could open new commercial opportunities and have some security benefits, the domains could also confuse some users, creating new opportunities for fraud artists.

For decades, the Internet has operated with just 21 top-level domains—the most common one being .com (which has about 200 million registered domain names)—plus country names like .jp for Japan and .de for Germany. But last week, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the nonprofit body that governs the naming system, decided after years of discussion to allow the new custom top-level domains. The organization is about to launch a campaign to raise awareness about their availability, and will accept applications starting January 12, 2012.  

Some companies are already lining up. The camera company Canon, for example, has said it will apply for “.canon” to create one central site, so users wouldn’t need to type “canon.com” in the United States, “canon.de” in Germany, and so on. Some global organizations might want to do the same, for similar reasons. Indeed, ICANN expects most applicants to be corporations. The new top-level domains will work in non-Latin alphabets, too.

However, some observers expect the domains to introduce confusion—and perhaps some new security risks. User confusion already plays a key role in the success of many online scams, such as phishing, in which fraudulent websites that look like bank sites—and that have domain names that seem right—coax people into entering their account numbers. (Similarly, billion-dollar frauds like fake antivirus scams thrive in part on confusion about what a correct virus warning should look like.)

So in theory, scam artists could register something like .savingsbank and confuse people. “You can probably imagine that if someone registers .wellsfargobank and customers erroneously try to go to http://wellsfargobank/; then the end user customer is maybe not going to get the ‛wellsfargobank’ they thought they were asking for,” says Paul Vixie, chairman and chief scientist of Internet Systems Consortium, a nonprofit developer of Internet software and protocols.

There is a limiting factor on such concerns, of course; would-be creators of new top-level domains will have to fork over $185,000 and go through a bureaucratic process to win approval, notes Richard Lamb, who is in charge of domain-name security deployment at ICANN. By contrast, it’s far easier to set up a similar domain name—say, wellsfargobanc.com—to fool people. But the consensus of ICANN’s board is that the overall security risks of the new effort are low. The details of their discussions can be found here.

But Lamb adds that glitches might arise if users try to reach new top-level domains without typing any dots—such as http://canon or similar addresses.

Some operating systems will first look to see if “canon” exists as part of the local domain (for example: canon.technologyreview.com) and then send you there. Similar problems could pertain to e-mail systems. “Fresh from the meeting floor this week, there have been discussions about how the lack of dots in the new top-level domains may get misinterpreted by existing software,” Lamb said.

Courtesy: technologyreview.in

Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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The pen may have bested the sword long ago, but now it’s challenging wires and soldering irons. University of Illinois engineers have developed a silver-inked rollerball pen capable of writing electrical circuits and interconnects on paper, wood and other surfaces. The pen is writing whole new chapters in low-cost, flexible and disposable electronics. 

Pen-based printing allows one to construct electronic devices ‘on-the-fly,’ ” said Lewis, the director of the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the U. of I. “This is an important step toward enabling desktop manufacturing (or personal fabrication) using very low cost, ubiquitous printing tools.”

While it looks like a typical silver-colored rollerball pen, this pen’s ink is a solution of real silver. After writing, the liquid in the ink dries to leave conductive silver pathways — in essence, paper-mounted wires. The ink maintains its conductivity through multiple bends and folds of the paper, enabling devices with great flexibility and conformability.

Metallic inks have been used in approaches using inkjet printers to fabricate electronic devices, but the pen offers freedom and flexibility to apply ink directly to paper or other rough surfaces instantly, at low cost and without programming.

 

Scientists figured out how to use a rollerball pen to write a circuit directly onto paper.

The pen writes electronic circuits using conductive silver ink. This metallic-based pen could literally change the way flexible electronics are fabricated and possibly bring the cost down.

To demonstrate the versatility of the technique, scientists at the University of Illinois took a Chinese painting called Sae-Han-Do, drew on wiring connecting the LED to a battery and watched it light up.

“The key advantage of the pen is that the costly printers and printheads typically required for inkjet or other printing approaches are replaced with an inexpensive, hand-held writing tool,” said Lewis, who is also affiliated with the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology.

Next, the researchers plan to expand the palette of inks to enable pen-on-paper writing of other electronic and ionically conductive materials.

Courtesy:sciencedaily and from other sources

Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 3rd year)

How car cooling system works

Introduction: 

                      Hi frnzz… almost many of us have cars, many of us are using them in our day to day lives… we all know that the cars run with the help of engines associated with them. If the engine runs for a long time… it gets heated up. If we still do not concentrate on the issue, the engine will be overloaded and it may burst. Therefore in order to cool the engine we need some coolants. Thus the car cooling concept comes in to discussion. We have different types of engines.     

Although gasoline engines have improved a lot, they are still not very efficient at turning chemical energy into mechanical power. Most of the energy in the gasoline (perhaps 7­0%) is converted into heat, and it is the job of the cooling system to take care of that heat. In fact, the cooling system on a car driving down the freeway dissipates enough heat to heat two average-sized houses! The primary job of the cooling system is to keep the engine from overheating by transferring this heat to the air, but the cooling system also has several other important jobs.

The engine in your car runs best at a fairly high temperature. When the engine is cold, components wear out faster, and the engine is less efficient and emits more pollution. So another important job of the cooling system is to allow the engine to heat up as quickly as possible, and then to keep the engine at a constant temperature.

In this article, we’ll see about the parts of a car cooling system and how they work.

 

THE BASICS:

   Inside your car’s engine, fuel is constantly burning. A lot of the heat from this combustion goes right out the exhaust system, but some of it soaks into the engine, heating it up. The engine runs best when its coolant is about 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius). At this temperature:

  • The combustion chamber is hot enough to completely vaporize the fuel, providing better combustion and reducing emissions.
  • The oil used to lubricate the engine has a lower viscosity (it is thinner), so the engine parts move more freely and the engine wastes less power moving its own components around.
  • Metal parts wear less.

There are two types of cooling systems found on cars: liquid-cooled and air-cooled.

Liquid Cooling:

The cooling system on liquid-cooled cars circulates a fluid through pipes and passageways in the engine. As this liquid passes through the hot engine it absorbs heat, cooling the engine. After the fluid leaves the engine, it passes through a heat exchanger, or radiator, which transfers the heat from the fluid to the air blowing through the exchanger.

Air Cooling:

Some older cars, and very few modern cars, are air-cooled. Instead of circulating fluid through the engine, the engine block is covered in aluminium fins that conduct the heat away from the cylinder. A powerful fan forces air over these fins, which cools the engine by transferring the heat to the air.

But most of the cars that we are using in our day to day lives are using liquid cooling system. So let us see about the concept in detail.

PLUMBING:

                    The cooling system in your car has a lot of plumbing. We’ll start at the pump and work our way through the system, and in the next sections we’ll talk about each part of the system in more detail.

The pump sends the fluid into the engine block, where it makes its way through passages in the engine around the cylinders. Then it returns through the cylinder head of the engine. The thermostat is located where the fluid leaves the engine. The plumbing around the thermostat sends the fluid back to the pump directly if the thermostat is closed. If it is open, the fluid goes through the radiator first and then back to the pump.

There is also a separate circuit for the heating system. This circuit takes fluid from the cylinder head and passes it through a heater core and then back to the pump. On cars with automatic transmissions, there is normally also a separate circuit for cooling the transmission fluid built into the radiator. The oil from the transmission is pumped by the transmission through a second heat exchanger inside the radiator.

 

FLUID:

Cars operate in a wide variety of temperatures, from well below freezing to we­ll over 100 F (38 C). So whatever fluid is used to cool the engine has to have a very low freezing point, a high boiling point, and it has to have the capacity to hold a lot of heat.

Water is one of the most effective fluids for holding heat, but water freezes at too high a temperature to be used in car engines. The fluid that most cars use is a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (C2H6O2), also known as antifreeze. By adding ethylene glycol to water, the boiling and freezing points are improved significantly.

Pure Water 50/50
C2H6O2/Water
70/30
C2H6O2/Water
Freezing Point 0 C / 32 F -37 C / -35 F -55 C / -67 F
Boiling Point 100 C / 212 F 106 C / 223 F 113 C / 235 F

The temperature of the coolant can sometimes reach 250 to 275 F (121 to 135 C). Even with ethylene glycol added, these temperatures would boil the coolant, so something additional must be done to raise its boiling point.

The cooling system uses pressure to further raise the boiling point of the coolant. Just as the boiling temperature of water is higher in a pressure cooker, the boiling temperature of coolant is higher if you pressurize the system. Most cars have a pressure limit of 14 to 15 pounds per square inch (psi), which raises the boiling point another 45 F (25 C) so the coolant can withstand the high temperatures.

Antifreeze also contains additives to resist corrosion.

WATER PUMP:

   The water pump is a simple centrifugal pump driven by a belt connected to the crankshaft of the engine. The pump circulates fluid whenever the engine is running.

The water pump uses centrifugal force to send fluid to the outside while it spins, causing fluid to be drawn from the center continuously. The inlet to the pump is located near the center so that fluid returning from the radiator hits the pump vanes. The pump vanes fling the fluid to the outside of the pump, where it can enter the engine.

The fluid leaving the pump flows first through the engine block and cylinder head, then into the radiator and finally back to the pump.

ENGINE:

The engine block and cylinder head have many passageways cast or mach­ined in them to allow for fluid flow. These passageways direct the coolant to the most critical areas of the engine.

Temperatures in the combustion chamber of the engine can reach 4,500 F (2,500 C), so cooling the area around the cylinders is critical. Areas around the exhaust valves are especially crucial, and almost all of the space inside the cylinder head around the valves that is not needed for structure is filled with coolant. If the engine goes without cooling for very long, it can seize. When this happens, the metal has actually gotten hot enough for the piston to weld itself to the cylinder. This usually means the complete destruction of the engine.

One interesting way to reduce the demands on the cooling system is to reduce the amount of heat that is transferred from the combustion chamber to the metal parts of the engine. Some engines do this by coating the inside of the top of the cylinder head with a thin layer of ceramic. Ceramic is a poor conductor of heat, so less heat is conducted through to the metal and more passes out of the exhaust.

RADIATOR:

A radiator is a type of heat exchanger. It is designed to transfer heat from the hot coolant that flows through it to the air blown through it by the fan.

Most modern cars use aluminium radiators. These radiators are made by brazing thin aluminium fins to flattened aluminium tubes. The coolant flows from the inlet to the outlet through many tubes mounted in a parallel arrangement. The fins conduct the heat from the tubes and transfer it to the air flowing through the radiator.

The tubes sometimes have a type of fin inserted into them called a turbulator, which increases the turbulence of the fluid flowing through the tubes. If the fluid flowed very smoothly through the tubes, only the fluid actually touching the tubes would be cooled directly. The amount of heat transferred to the tubes from the fluid running through them depends on the difference in temperature between the tube and the fluid touching it. So if the fluid that is in contact with the tube cools down quickly, less heat will be transferred. By creating turbulence inside the tube, all of the fluid mixes together, keeping the temperature of the fluid touching the tubes up so that more heat can be extracted, and all of the fluid inside the tube is used effectively.

Radiators usually have a tank on each side, and inside the tank is a transmission cooler. In the picture above, you can see the inlet and outlet where the oil from the transmission enters the cooler. The transmission cooler is like a radiator within a radiator, except instead of exchanging heat with the air, the oil exchanges heat with the coolant in the radiator.

PRESSURE CAP:

                           The radiator cap actually increases the boiling point of your coolant by about 45 F (25 C). How does this simple cap do this? The same way a pressure cooker increases the boiling temperature of water. The cap is actually a pressure release valve, and on cars it is usually set to 15 psi. The boiling point of water increases when the water is placed under pressure.

 

When the fluid in the cooling system heats up, it expands, causing the pressure to build up. The cap is the only place where this pressure can escape, so the setting of the spring on the cap determines the maximum pressure in the cooling system. When the pressure reaches 15 psi, the pressure pushes the valve open, allowing coolant to escape from the cooling system. This coolant flows through the overflow tube into the bottom of the overflow tank. This arrangement keeps air out of the system. When the radiator cools back down, a vacuum is created in the cooling system that pulls open another spring loaded valve, sucking water back in from the bottom of the overflow tank to replace the water that was expelled.

 

THERMOSTAT:

                         The thermostat’s main job is to allow the engine to heat up quickly, and then to keep the engine at a constant temperature. It does this by regulating the amount of water that goes through the radiator. At low temperatures, the outlet to the radiator is completely blocked — all of the coolant is re-circulated back through the engine.

Once the temperature of the coolant rises between 180F and 195 F (82 – 91 C), the thermostat starts to open, allowing fluid to flow through the radiator. By the time the coolant reaches 200 to 218 F (93 – 103 C), the thermostat is open all the way.

If you ever have the chance to test one, a thermostat is an amazing thing to watch because what it does seems impossible. You can put one in a pot of boiling water on the stove. As it heats up, its valve opens about an inch, apparently by magic! If you’d like to try this yourself, go to a car parts store and buy one for a couple of bucks.

The secret of the thermostat lies in the small cylinder located on the engine-side of the device. This cylinder is filled with a wax that begins to melt at around 180 F (different thermostats open at different temperatures, but 180 F is a common one). A rod connected to the valve presses into this wax. When the wax melts, it expands significantly, pushing the rod out of the cylinder and opening the valve.

FAN:

L­ike the thermostat, the cooling fan has to be controlled so that it allows the engine to maintain a constant temperature.

Front-wheel drive cars have electric fans because the engine is usually mounted transversely, meaning the output of the engine points toward the side of the car. The fans are controlled either with a thermostatic switch or by the engine computer, and they turn on when the temperature of the coolant goes above a set point. They turn back off when the temperature drops below that point.

Rear-wheel drive cars with longitudinal engines usually have engine-driven cooling fans. These fans have a thermostatically controlled viscous clutch. This clutch is positioned at the hub of the fan, in the airflow coming through the radiator. This special viscous clutch is much like the viscous coupling sometimes found in all-wheel drive cars.

HEATING SYSTEM:

                          You may have heard the advice that if you car is overheating, open all the windows and run the heater with the fan going at full blast. This is because the heating system is actually a secondary cooling system that mirrors the main cooling system on your car.

The heater core, which is located in the dashboard of your car, is really a small radiator. The heater fan blows air through the heater core and into the passenger compartment of your car.

The heater core draws its hot coolant from the cylinder head and returns it to the pump — so the heater works regardless of whether the thermostat is open or closed.

                         This completes the different areas of the cooling system that are essential and associated with the cooling system concept.

courtesy:howstuffworks.com

Posted by

Ravi Teja (MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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Making Websites Accessible and Secure

Website CAPTCHA technology used to protect sites from hackers, bots and spammers is making those same sites inaccessible to many potential users, according to a survey of 150 typical online forums and other sites.

Details of the findings are reported this month in the International Journal of Web Based Communities.

CAPTCHA stands for “completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart.” These are computer-generated checks that attempt to determine whether a visitor is a legitimate user or a potentially malicious computer script favoured by hackers and spammers. They commonly take a question and answer form or ask users to enter characters in an obfuscated image of text. CAPTCHAs have even become useful to the wider community allowing corrections to be made to scanned public documents, such as out-of print books, by crowd-sourcing the entries users type. There are also audio CAPTCHAs on my any sites.

 

However, although they can help site owners block spam and malicious attacks, CAPTCHAs pose serious problems for the visually impaired and deaf web communities, say Joanne Kuzma and colleagues at the University of Worcester, England. The rise of online forums has benefited disabled users, who take advantage of better communications and more inclusion into society, the team asserts. But, the advent of CAPTCHAs has represented, on many occasions, an insurmountable technical barrier to many of those potential users.

 

There have been several legal cases in which members of a particular community have taken website owners to court over such obstacles, citing equal opportunities law. Such cases have ensured that those and other companies begin to recognise and address the problems around accessibility. Indeed, many companies in the web 2.0 era have pre-empted the issues that might arise and ensured that their sites are accessible and usable by everyone.

 

“Firms need to realise that it is legally and ethically important to provide fully accessibility to their systems,” the researchers say. “With the increasing number of disabled people using these sites, firms can benefit economically by catering to their disabled constituents.”

 

In surveying 150 online forums, the team has identified many that typically exclude many potential users through inappropriate CAPTCHA implementation. They suggest that site owners should determine whether or not the security offered by implementing a CAPTCHA offers a sufficiently raised level of security to justify its use to the possible exclusion of some users. There are many ways to block spammers and to tighten security that can function perfectly well behind the scenes rather than overtly at the front-end of a site. If a site deems it essential to use a CAPTCHA, then they must ensure that various types are in place so that users of any ability have a choice including different types of character, audio, image recognition and logic-based tests so that no one is excluded except the spammers and hackers.

courtesy:sciencedaily.com

Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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VOLKSWAGEN XL1: THE KING OF MILEAGE

In the views of several famous news papers, the above caption sets aptly for this highly fuel efficient, low weighted, lowest carbon-di-oxide releasing car. It is a two seated diesel concept car from Volkswagen. It is said to achieve a mileage value of 100km/litre which seems to be highly fascinating as well as unacceptable. This series starts with Volkswagen L1 shown below.

 

 

 

This car’s CO2 emissions are crazy low i.e., just 24 grams per kilometer where as top speed is 100 mph. The L1 has two driving modes – eco and sport – and, of course, features Auto Start-Stop.

HOW IS THIS POSSIBLE?

For light weight, the car uses an unpainted carbon fibre skin over a magnesium-alloy sub frame. Individual components have been designed to be low weight, including engine, transmission, suspension, wheels (carbon fibre), brakes (aluminium), hubs (titanium), bearings (ceramic), interior, and so on. Empty vehicle weight is nearly 600 kg. Hence this light weight construction and its shape which reduces the aerodynamic drag swiftly reduce the fuel consumption. Its drag coefficient is 0.186. In total just 23.2% of the car (184 kg (410 lb)) is made out of either steel or iron with the drive train weighing 227 kg (500 lb).

ENGINE AND DRIVING SYSTEM:

According to Volkswagen, the XL1 can achieve a combined fuel consumption of 0.9 litres per 100 kilometers (310 mpg) andCO2 emissions of 24 g/km. Like the L1, the XL1 uses a two-cylinder turbo-diesel. Displacing 800 cc, it is rated at 35 kW (47 hp) and 121 Nm (89 lb-ft) of torque and transmits power to the rear wheels through a seven-speed DSG transmission. The electric motor pitches in with 20 kW (27 hp) and 100 Nm (74 lb-ft) of torque, and can work in parallel with the diesel or drive the car independent of it. Fully charged, the XL1 can travel up to 35 km (22 miles) on electric power.

COMPLETE FEATURES:

Despite the very high levels of efficiency, developers constructed it to prove its practicality. In this new XL1, seats are arranged side by side irrespective of tandem seating arrangement i.e., front and back arrangement as in L1. This car consists of gull-window doors which ease in entering and leaving the car.

With the Volkswagen XL1, Volkswagen is implementing a plug-in hybrid concept, which utilizes the fuel efficient technology of the common rail turbo diesel (TDI) and the dual clutch transmission (DSG).
At the rear, the design takes an entirely new path, reinterpreting the brand values of precision and quality. A new dimension of Volkswagen styling was created here. Four characteristics are discernible:

1. Once again, the dolphin body form that narrows towards the rear with very precise trailing edges for perfect aerodynamics.

2. The coupe-shaped roofline without rear windscreen. Merging into the roofline is the large rear boot lid that covers the drive unit and 100 litre luggage spaces.

3. A strip of red LEDs that frames the rear section at the top and on the sides. Integrated in this LED strip are the reversing lights, rear lights, rear fog lights and brake lights.

4. A black diffuser, which exhibits nearly seamless transitions to the completely covered underbody.

Lightweight construction: safer than ever: The Volkswagen XL1 is not only lightweight, but very safe as well.  Depending on the type of collision, the load path may be directed through the A- and B-pillars, cant rails and sills, all of which absorb the impact energy. Additional side members and cross members in the front and rear perfect the car’s passive safety.

Comparing this XL1 with its previous series…

XL1 (2011) L1 (2009) 1-Litre (2002)
Body
Construction method CFRP monocoque and add-on parts Aluminium and CFRP Magnesium and carbon fibre
Dimensions:
length, mm
width, mm
height, mm
wheelbase, mm
3,888
1,665
1,156
2,224
3,813
1,200
1,143
n/a
3,470
1,250
1,000
2,205
Drive system
Type Plug-in hybrid
Rear-wheel drive
Plug-in hybrid
Rear-wheel drive
Diesel
Rear-wheel drive
Internal combustion engine TDI, two-cylinder
800 cc
35 kW / 48 PS, 120 Nm
TDI, two-cylinder
800 cc
39 PS, 100 Nm
Single cylinder
299 cc
8.5 PS, 18.4 Nm
Electric motor 20 kW / 27 PS, 100 Nm 10 kW / 14 PS n/a
Gearbox 7-speed DSG 7-speed DSG 6-speed automated
Battery Lithium-ion Lithium-ion n/a
Emissions class Euro 6 Euro 6 n/a
Weight
Kerb weight 795 kg 380 kg 290 kg
Performance / fuel economy
Top speed, km/h 160 (electronically
limited)
160 (electronically limited) n/a
0-100 km/h, secs 11.9 14.3 n/a
Fuel consumption,
l/100 km / mpg
(Ø NEDC)
0.9 / 313 1.38 / 189 0.99 / 285
CO2 emissions, g/km
(Ø NEDC)
24 36 n/a
Range: E-drive 35 km n/a n/a
Range: TDI + E-drive approx. 550 km
(10 litre fuel tank)
670 km
(10 litre fuel tank)
650 km
(6.5 litre fuel tank)

 

The TDI engine is linked to an electric motor and a seven-speed DSG gearbox with an automatic clutch mounted between each unit. The electric motor can either work independently of the TDI engine or in tandem when accelerating. In pure electric mode the Volkswagen XL1 can travel up to 35 km before the diesel engine cuts in. Accelerating from rest to 62 mph can be achieved in 11.9 seconds; the electronically limited top speed is 100 mph.

Posted by

Gopi Chand (MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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Mobile Number Portability ( MNP)

If u think u are fed up with ur network operator……and wanted to switch to a new service without changing ur mobile number……then MNP is the answer…

TECHNICAL DETAILS

A significant technical aspect of MNP (Mobile Number Portability) is related to the routing of calls or mobile messages (SMS, MMS) to a number once it has been ported. There are various flavours of call routing implementation across the globe but the international and European best practice is via the use of a central database (CDB) of ported numbers. Network operator makes copies of CDB and queries it to find out which network to send a call to. This is also known as All Call Query (ACQ) and is highly efficient and scalable. Majority of the established and upcoming MNP systems across the world are based on this ACQ/CDB method of call routing. One of the very few countries to not use ACQ/CDB is the UK where calls to a number once it has been ported are still routed via the Donor network. This is also known as ‘Indirect Routing’ and is highly inefficient as it is wasteful of transmission and switching capacity. Because of its Donor dependent nature, Indirect Routing also means that if the Donor network develops a fault or goes out of business, the customers who have ported out of that network will lose incoming calls to their numbers. The UK telecoms regulator Ofcom completed its extended review of the UK MNP process on 29 November 2007 and mandated that ACQ/CDB be implemented for mobile to mobile ported calls by no later than 1 September 2009, and for all other (fixed and mobile) ported calls by no later than 31 December 2012.

Prior to March 2008 it took a minimum of 5 working days to port a number in the UK compared to 2 hours only in USA, as low as 20 minutes in the Republic of Ireland, 3 minutes in Australia and even a matter of seconds in New Zealand. On 17 July 2007, Ofcom released its conclusions from the review of UK MNP and mandated reduction of porting time to 2 working days with effect from 1 April 2008. On 29 November 2007, Ofcom completed its consultation on further reduction to porting time to 2 hours along with recipient led porting and mandated that near-instant (no more than 2 hours) recipient led porting be implemented by no later than 1 September 2009.

In a decentralised model of MNP, a FNR (Flexible Number Register) may be used to manage a database of ported out/ported in numbers for call routing.

How to change mobile operator under MNP

· Subscribers must pay up all pending bills before making an application for MNP.

· You cannot switch operator and retain number if you have been with that operator for less than three months.

Several surveys have found that about 7-10% of all mobile users are unhappy with their current mobile service provider. Introduction of mobile number portability will facilitate the easy exit of disgruntled users. This also means telcos will have to put more effort to retain those customers, who earlier stayed loyal to the operator out of the necessity of retaining their number…

Posted by

Mahesh (MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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Nokia c3-02 ( Dual Sim Phones)

Uptil now, dual SIM phones with touch screen are not very much common, atleast from a renowned vendor.

China handsets are already in the market with dual SIM functionality and touch screen but still they are considered to be less reliable.

This time Nokia takes the lead by introducing a dual SIM phone that comes equipped with touch screen. Also to satisfy the taste of conventional users, phone has also got numeric keypad.

Nokia C2-03 is a series 40 phone that combines touch and type functionality. Nokia has already introduced touch and type phones, for instance N97, but this is the first time dual SIM functionality has also been equipped with this.

Main features of the phone are:

  • 240 x 320 with up to 65K colours  touch screen
  • Weight: 118g
  • 2MP Camera
  • 10 MB internal memory (expansion slot, upto 32GB)
  • Dimensions: 103 x 51.4 x 17mm (L x W x H)
  • Series 40
  • Standby time: 400 hours
  • Talk time: 5 hours:
  • Upto 35 hours music playback time

Phone has an easy swap feature, so you do not need to turn off the phone for changing the SIM. For this phone has a slot at it’s side with which you can simply change your SIM.

C2-03 comes pre-equipped with Nokia Maps for series 40. You can simply use them even if you are offline. Also the phone has been equipped with series 40 browser that was available as an application on Ovi Store.

Approximated price for this phone is 9,500….

courtesy:crystalnetwork.tk

Posted by

Mahesh ( MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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In my previous article I have talked about a search engine based on day to day images taken by our phone camera or any other digital cam and comparing that image with the images of any websites data base and retrieve the information about that picture. I thought it may take a while for any great search engine to design such search engine which have to compare your images with theirs and retrieve the information about that place or person which you have taken. But to my surprise the king of search engines, Google found out such search mechanism… they named it as Google image search and they even gave an extension to that thing which can be downloaded to your phone as a software… cool right… here comes our Google Goggles…

Google Goggles is a downloadable image recognition application created by Google Inc. which can be currently found on the Mobile Apps page of Google Mobile. It is used for searches based on pictures taken by handheld devices. For example, taking a picture of a famous landmark would search for information about it, or taking a picture of a product’s barcode will search for information on the product. Almost same as the product which I have predicted in my previous article right…
SYMBOL OF GOOGLE GOGGLES

WHAT IT CAN DO?
This software was developed for use on Google’s Android operating systems for mobile devices. While initially only available in a beta version for Android phones, Google announced its plans to enable the software to run on other platforms, notably iPhone and BlackBerry devices.
Google Goggles lets you use pictures taken with your mobile phone to search the web. It’s ideal for things that aren’t easy to describe in words. There’s no need to type or speak your query – all you have to do is open the app, snap a picture, and wait for your search results.

Google Goggles works better with certain types of queries. It can recognize up to three items at a time. For best results, try taking pictures of Books & DVDs, Landmarks, Barcodes & QR codes, Logos, Contact info, Artwork, Businesses, Products and Text.
Implies the program proposed will be able to identify virtually anything. Currently the system can identify various labels or landmarks, allowing users to learn about such items without needing a text-based search. The system can identify products barcodes or labels that allow users to search for similar products and prices, and save codes for future reference. The system will also recognize printed text and using optical character recognition (OCR) produce a text snippet, and in some cases even translate the snippet into another language.
 SEARCHING WITH HELP OF BARCODE

WHAT IT CAN DO IN FUTURE?

Google is currently working to make the system able to recognize different plants and leaves, which can aid curious persons, those wishing to avoid toxic plants, and botanists and environmentalists searching for rare plants. It means now it can not search about them but in future they also can be predicted and can be retrieved information of.
As of June 2011, Google Goggles is running on version 1.4. Goggles specifically developed to run on mobile devices running the Android operating system. Goggles run on any phone running Android version 1.6 or higher and can be installed using the Android Market. Although developed for Android there is now also an iPhone version, as part of the Google Search app, available from the iTunes Store or App Store. Goggles requires iPhone 3GS or iPhone 4 on iOS 4.0 or higher to run. In January 2011, version 1.3 was released; it can solve Sudoku puzzles.
Hope this product may lead to further more inventions on image comparison and retrieval and may the legacy begins…

Courtesy: google goggles

Posted by

Gopi chand ( MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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Visual Search Engine

A startup’s new technology will let smart phones recognize objects by mimicking the human visual system.

Wine time: An app called WINEfindr uses technology developed by Cortexica to identify bottles, and then find comparative pricing information online.

We have seen technologies like RFID which is used to identify devices by having a bar code on that product and also forthcoming technologies like NFC (Near Field Communication) which could also be used in identifying things and to retrieve more info about them….

Since now a days people are opting for visual search rather than keywords search, this would be the possible step to go ahead….

Ever found a product in a store and wondered if you could get it cheaper somewhere else? Soon a visual search tool will be able to help. Take a snapshot of the product with your phone and it will automatically pull up online pricing information.

The technology, developed by Cortexica, a startup spun out of research conducted at Imperial College London, has already been used to create a wine comparison app called WINEfindr. Last week, the company launched an application-programming interface (API) for the technology, which will allow others to build similar apps.

“It’s a bit like the bar-code scanning apps that link a physical object in the real world to online content,” says Anil Bharath, a researcher at Imperial and cofounder of Cortexica. “But rather than having to create a QR code, it recognizes the object itself,” he says.

Cortexica’s VisualSearch platform uses techniques inspired by the human vision system to compensate for different lighting conditions. It identifies key features of an object irrespective of their orientation, size, or how dark or light they appear in the image. This makes it possible to identify products at a distance or even while they are moving. Cortexica’s technology can also spot logos and objects in videos.

“The technology is interesting, but they aren’t giving away much,” says James Ferryman of the computer-vision group at the University of Reading, in the U.K.

Ferryman notes that other visual search tools already exist, such as Google’s Goggles, which recognizes many objects, labels, and landmarks and automatically searches the Web for information about them; and TinEye, a service that lets users upload an image and search the Web to find webpages on which the thing pictured appears.

Another of Cortexica’s cofounders, Jeffrey Ng, says his company’s technology is more accurate and scalable than any other now available.

The human vision system compares different points of an image with its neighbors—a phenomenon known as “edge extraction”—in order to identify features in a range of different conditions. “We have basically copied that architecture,” says Bharath. Cortexica uses graphical processing units (GPUs) to handle the parallel processing.

courtesy:technologyreview.in

Posted by

Mahesh( MGIT ECE 3rd year)

HOW ATOMS WORK

Introduction:

                    We know that atom is the smallest particle also the fundamental particle which cannot be broken further. Though it is the smallest particle which cannot be seen with our naked eye, it is the most useful and most dangerous particle. The collision of two atoms travelling at a speed of light in the opposite direction results in a huge destruction.

We can even look at the sample of the destruction. The HIROSHIMA and the NAGASAKI are still the victims of the atomic bomb. Very soon we are going to witness the artificial BIG-BANG theory using the protons to know the mystery of the universe.

In this way, the atoms are useful as well as dangerous. So let us see how this small particle called the ATOM works….

It has been said that during the 20th century, man harnessed the power of the atom. We made atomic bombs and generated electricity by nuclear power. We even split the atom into smaller pieces called sub atomic particles.

 

But what exactly is an atom? What is it made of? What does it look like? The pursuit of the structure of the atom has married many areas of chemistry and physics in perhaps one of the greatest contributions of modern science.
In this article, we will follow this fascinating story of how discoveries in various fields of science resulted in our modern view of the atom. We will look at the consequences of knowing the atom’s structure and how this structure will lead to new technologies.

WHAT IS AN ATOM?

The modern view of an atom has come from many fields of chemistry and physics. The idea of an atom came from ancient Greek science/philosophy and from the results of 18th and 19th century chemistry:

  • concept of the atom
  • measurements of atomic mass
  • repeating or periodic relationship between the elements

 

Concept of the Atom:

From the ancient Greeks through today, we have pondered what ordinary matter is made of. To understand the problem, here is a simple demonstration from a book entitled “The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things, 3rd Edition” by Carl H. Snyder:

1. Take a pile of paper clips (all of the same size and colour).

2. Divide the pile into two equal piles.

3. Divide each of the smaller piles into two equal piles.

4. Repeat step 3 until you are down to a pile containing only one paper clip. That one paper clip still does the job of a paper clip (i.e., hold loose papers together).

5. Now, take a pair of scissors and cut that one paper clip in half. Can half of the paper clip do the same job as the single paper clip?

If you do the same thing with any element, you will reach an indivisible part that has the same properties of the element, like the single paper clip. This indivisible part is called an atom.

The idea of the atom was first devised by Democritus in 530 B.C. In 1808, an English school teacher and scientist named John Dalton proposed the modern atomic theory. Modern atomic theory simply states the following:

  • Every element is made of atoms – piles of paper clips.
  • All atoms of any element are the same – all the paper clips in the pile are the same size and colour.
  • Atoms of different elements are different (size, properties) – like different sizes and colours of paper clips.
  • Atoms of different elements can combine to form compounds – you can link different sizes and colours of paper clips together to make new structures.
  • In chemical reactions, atoms are not made, destroyed, or changed – no new paper clips appear, no paper clips get lost and no paper clips change from one size/colour to another.
  • In any compound, the numbers and kinds of atoms remain the same – the total number and types of paper clips that you start with are the same as when you finish.

Dalton’s atomic theory formed the groundwork of chemistry at that time. Dalton envisioned atoms as tiny spheres with hooks on them. With these hooks, one atom could combine with another in definite proportions. But some elements could combine to make different compounds (e.g., hydrogen + oxygen could make water or hydrogen peroxide). So, he could not say anything about the numbers of each atom in the molecules of specific substances. Did water have one oxygen with one hydrogen or one oxygen with two hydrogens? This point was resolved when chemists figured out how to weigh atoms.

Important terms:

  • atom – smallest piece of an element that keeps its chemical properties
  • compound – substance that can be broken into elements by chemical reactions
  • electron – particle orbiting the nucleus of an atom with a negative charge (mass = 9.10 x 10-28 grams)
  • element – substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions
  • ion – electrically charged atom (i.e., excess positive or negative charge)
  • molecule – smallest piece of a compound that keeps its chemical properties (made of two or more atoms)
  • neutron – particle in the nucleus of an atom with no charge (mass = 1.675 x 10-24 grams)
  • nucleus – dense, central core of an atom (made of protons and neutrons)
  • proton – particle in the nucleus of an atom with a positive charge (mass = 1.673 x 10-24 grams)

 

HOW MUCH DO ATOMS WEIGH?

The ability to weigh atoms came about by an observation from an Italian chemist named Amadeo Avogadro. Avogadro was working with gases (nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine) and noticed that when temperature and pressure was the same, these gases combined in definite volume ratios. For example:

  • One litre of nitrogen combined with three litres of hydrogen to form ammonia (NH3)
  • One litre of hydrogen combined with one litre of chlorine to make hydrogen chloride (HCl)

 

Avogadro said that at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of the gases had the same number of molecules. So, by weighing the volumes of gases, he could determine the ratios of atomic masses. For example, a litre of oxygen weighed 16 times more than a litre of hydrogen, so an atom of oxygen must be 16 times the mass of an atom of hydrogen. Work of this type resulted in a relative mass scale for elements in which all of the elements related to carbon (chosen as the standard -12). Once the relative mass scale was made, later experiments were able to relate the mass in grams of a substance to the number of atoms and an atomic mass unit (amu) was found; 1 amu or Dalton is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams.

At this time, chemists knew the atomic masses of elements and their chemical properties, and an astonishing phenomenon jumped out at them!

The Properties of Elements Showed a Repeating Pattern:

 At the time that atomic masses had been discovered, a Russian chemist named Dimitri Mendeleev was writing a textbook. For his book, he began to organize elements in terms of their properties by placing the elements and their newly discovered atomic masses in cards. He arranged the elements by increasing atomic mass and noticed that elements with similar properties appeared at regular intervals or periods. Mendeleev’s table had two problems:

  • There were some gaps in his “periodic table.”
  • When grouped by properties, most elements had increasing atomic masses, but some were out of order.

To explain the gaps, Mendeleev said that the gaps were due to undiscovered elements. In fact, his table successfully predicted the existence of gallium and germanium, which were discovered later. However, Mendeleev was never able to explain why some of the elements were out of order or why the elements should show this periodic behaviour. This would have to wait until we knew about the structure of the atom.

 

The Structure of the Atom: Early 20th Century Science:

To know the structure of the atom, we must know the following:

  • What are the parts of the atom?
  • How are these parts arranged?

Near the end of the 19th century, the atom was thought to be nothing more than a tiny indivisible sphere (Dalton’s view). However, a series of discoveries in the fields of chemistry, electricity and magnetism, radioactivity, and quantum mechanics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries changed all of that. Here is what these fields contributed:

  • The parts of the atom:
  • chemistry and electromagnetism —> electron (first subatomic particle)
  • radioactivity —> nucleus
    • proton
    • neutron
  • How the atom is arranged – quantum mechanics puts it all together:
  • atomic spectra —> Bohr model of the atom
  • wave-particle duality —> Quantum model of the atom

Chemistry and Electromagnetism: Discovering the Electron:

In the late 19th century, chemists and physicists were studying the relationship between electricity and matter. They were placing high voltage electric currents through glass tubes filled with low-pressure gas (mercury, neon, xenon) much like neon lights. Electric current was carried from one electrode (cathode) through the gas to the other electrode (anode) by a beam called cathode rays. In 1897, a British physicist, J. J. Thomson did a series of experiments with the following results:

  • He found that if the tube was placed within an electric or magnetic field, then the cathode rays could be deflected or moved (this is how the the cathode ray tube (CRT) on your television works).
  • By applying an electric field alone, a magnetic field alone, or both in combination, Thomson could measure the ratio of the electric charge to the mass of the cathode rays.
  • He found the same charge to mass ratio of cathode rays was seen regardless of what material was inside the tube or what the cathode was made of.

Thomson concluded the following:

  • Cathode rays were made of tiny, negatively charged particles, which he called electrons.
  • The electrons had to come from inside the atoms of the gas or metal electrode.
  • Because the charge to mass ratio was the same for any substance, the electrons were a basic part of all atoms.
  • Because the charge to mass ratio of the electron was very high, the electron must be very small.

Later, an American Physicist named Robert Millikan measured the electrical charge of an electron. With these two numbers (charge, charge to mass ratio), physicists calculated the mass of the electron as 9.10 x 10-28 grams. For comparison, a U.S. penny has a mass of 2.5 grams; so, 2.7 x 1027 or 2.7 billion billion billion electrons would weigh as much as a penny!

Two other conclusions came from the discovery of the electron:

  • Because the electron was negatively charged and atoms are electrically neutral, there must be a positive charge somewhere in the atom.
Because electrons are so much smaller than atoms, there must be other, more massive particles in the atom.

From these results, Thomson proposed a model of the atom that was like a watermelon. The red part was the positive charge and the seeds were the electrons.

Thus the atom model was proposed… the details about the atom will be shown in next article friends.

courtesy: howstuffworks

Posted by

Raviteja ( MGIT ECE 3rd year)

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