World has changed a lot in the past decade. Previously we used to have really big analog cameras which can be compared to present digital cameras as Giants. We dint know any major applications what we use presently in a cell phone. Now the latest hit in it are smart phones. By the tremendous use of digital technology, we have shrinked the size of a TV tremendously which led to LED screens. We had never used the system this much for the sake of talking with friends, sharing our photos, videos and all that stuff (yes it’s about social networking). And another biggest hit is cloud computing.

Now lets take a look at these common words what we listen frequently. Coz according to some great engineers and scientists across the world, these are some of the greatest hits of the decade.

1.    DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY:

Digital photography is a form of photography that uses an array of light sensitive sensors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on light sensitive film. The captured image is then stored as a digital file ready for viewing or printing, cropping, color correcting. Until the usage of this technology photographs were printed in dark labs by cleaning them in some liquid and later dry those up which is a time taking process. But here in digital photography, digital photographs can be displayed, printed, stored, manipulated, by this digital and computer techniques, without chemical processing.

The Presidential Portrait of Barack Obama was the first official

U.S. Presidential Portrait to be taken with a digital camera.

Nearly all digital cameras use removable solid state flash memory.

Pixel count (typically listed in megapixels, millions of pixels) is one of the major factor that is heavily marketed figure of merit. And the processing system inside the camera that turns the raw data into a color-balanced and pleasing photograph is usually more critical, which is why some 4+ megapixel cameras perform better than higher-end cameras.

Pixel counts:

The number of pixels n for a given maximum resolution (w horizontal pixels by h vertical pixels) is the product n = w × h. The pixel count quoted by manufacturers can be misleading as it may not be the number of full-color pixels. For cameras using single-chip image sensors the number claimed is the total number of single-color-sensitive photo sensors, though they have different locations in the plane.

Dynamic range:

Practical imaging systems, digital and film, have a limited “dynamic range”: the range of luminosity that can be reproduced accurately. Highlights of the subject that are too bright are rendered as white, with no detail; shadows that are too dark are rendered as black. The loss of detail is not abrupt with film, or in dark shadows with digital sensors: some detail is retained as brightness moves out of the dynamic range.


2.     SMART PHONES:

A smart phone is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary phone.  Smart phones run complete operating system software providing a platform for application developers. Thus, they combine the functions of a camera phone and a personal digital assistant (PDA).

The first smart phone was the IBM Simon which was designed and released in early 90’s.

The Nokia Communicator line was the first of Nokia’s smart phones starting with the Nokia 9000, released in 1996.

The latest and leading smart phone is iPhone.

It was the first mobile phone to use a multi-touch interface, and it featured a web browser that Ars Technica then described as “far superior” to anything offered by that of its competitors. A process called “jail breaking” emerged quickly to provide unofficial third-party applications.

Now let’s talk about the biggest invention of the time… Android operating system…

The Android operating system for smart phones was released in 2008. Android is an open source platform backed by Google, along with major hardware and software developers (such as Intel, HTC, ARM, Motorola and Samsung, to name a few), that form the Open Handset Alliance. The first phone to use Android was the HTC Dream. The software suite included on the phone consists of integration with Google’s proprietary applications, such as Maps, Calendar, and Gmail, and a full HTML web browser.

While the operating systems sharing the market are Symbian OS, Samsung’s Bada, Palm Pilot Web OS, Windows phone…

3.     LED SCREENS:

An LED display is a video display which uses light-emitting diodes. A LED panel is a small display, or a component of a larger display. They are typically used outdoors in store signs and billboards, and in recent years have also become commonly used in destination signs on public transport vehicles or even as part of transparent glass area. LED panels are sometimes used as form of lighting, for the purpose of general illumination, task lighting, or even stage lighting rather than display.

There are two types of LED panels: conventional (using discrete LEDs) and surface-mounted device (SMD) panels. Most outdoor screens and some indoor screens are built around discrete LEDs, also known as individually mounted LEDs.

Flat Panel LED Television Display

Possibly the first true all LED flat panel television TV screen was developed, demonstrated and documented by J. P. Mitchell in 1977. The modular, scalable display was initially designed with hundreds of MV50 LEDs and a newly available TTL memory addressing circuit from National Semiconductor. The ¼ in thin flat panel prototype and the scientific paper were displayed at the 29th ISEF expo sponsored by the Society for Science and the Public in Washington D.C. May 1978. The technical display received awards and recognition. Awards included NASA, General Motors Corporation, and recognition from faculty and area Universities and the IEEE. The monochromatic LED prototype remains operational. An LCD (liquid crystal display) matrix design was also cited in the LED paper as an alternative x-y scan technology and as a future alternate television display method. The replacement of the 70 year+ high-voltage analog system (cathode-ray tube technology) with a digital x-y scan system has been significant. Displacement of the electromagnetic scan systems included the removal of inductive deflection, electron beam and color convergence circuits. The digital x-y scan system has helped the modern television to “collapse” into its current thin form factor.

In 1978, Mitchell also submitted his paper to the Westinghouse Science Talent Search contest, where he received an Honorable Mention.

Mitchell also presented his paper at the 90th Session of The Iowa Academy of Science April 21–22, 1978, at the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa.

The 1977 model was monochromatic by design. Efficient blue LEDs did not arrive for another decade. Large displays now use high-brightness diodes to generate a wide spectrum color palette. It took three decades and organic electroluminescent materials for Sony to introduce an LED TV: the Sony XEL-1.

Mobile LED display

4.   SOCIAL NETWORKS:

A social network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called “nodes”, which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige.

Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of network theory consisting of nodes and ties (also called edgeslinks, or connections).Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are the relationships between the actors. The resulting graph-based structures are often very complex. There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes. Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals.

In its simplest form, a social network is a map of specified ties, such as friendship, between the nodes being studied. The nodes to which an individual is thus connected are the social contacts of that individual. The network can also be used to measure social capital – the value that an individual gets from the social network. These concepts are often displayed in a social network diagram, where nodes are the points and ties are the lines.

By the usage of internet by every person in the world these social networking sites have been a tremendous hit in the last decade.

If we consider all the face book users as the population of a country, then that country will be the second biggest in the world. By this we can determine the effect of internet and their social networking sites on the people of the decade.

5.     CLOUD COMPUTING:

Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. Users or clients can submit a task, such as word processing, to the service provider, such as Google, without actually possessing the software or hardware. The consumer’s computer may contain very little software or data (perhaps a minimal operating system and web browser only), serving as little more than a display terminal connected to the Internet. Since the cloud is the underlying delivery mechanism, cloud based applications and services may support any type of software application or service in use today.

In the past, both data and software had to be stored and processed on or near the computer. The development of Local Area Networks allowed for a system in which multiple CPUs and storage devices may be organized to increase the performance of the entire system. In an extension to that concept, cloud computing fundamentally allows for a functional separation between the resources used and the user’s computer, usually residing outside the local network, for example, in an remote datacenter. Consumers now routinely use data intensive applications driven by cloud technology which were previously unavailable due to cost and deployment complexity. In many companies’ employees and company departments are bringing a flood of consumer technology into the workplace and this raises legal compliance and security concerns for the corporation.

The term “software as a service” is sometimes used to describe programs offered through “The Cloud”.

Common shorthand for a provided cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is “The Cloud”.

An analogy to explain cloud computing is that of public utilities such as electricity, gas, and water. Centralized and standardized utilities freed individuals from the difficulties of generating electricity or pumping water. All of the development and maintenance tasks involved in doing so was alleviated. With Cloud computing, this translates to a reduced cost in software distribution to providers who still use hard mediums such as DVDs. Consumer benefits are that software no longer has to be installed and is automatically updated but savings in terms of dollars is yet to be seen.

The principle behind the cloud is that any computer connected to the Internet is connected to the same pool of computing power, applications, and files. Users can store and access personal files such as music, pictures, videos, and bookmarks or play games or do word processing on a remote server rather than physically carrying around a storage medium such as a DVD or thumb drive. Even those who use web-based email such as Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo, a company owned email or even an e-mail client program such as Outlook, Evolution, Mozilla Thunderbird or Entourage are making use of cloud email servers. Hence, desktop applications which connect to cloud email can also be considered cloud applications.

This is the cloud computing sample architecture.

These above are the 5 top hits in the previous decade.

In the next article we will look over some more new hits of the recent…

Source : Self Ideas nd internet.

Posted by

Gopi chand ( MGIT ECE 3rd year)






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